“Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)
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{"title"=>"\"Of sheep and men\": Earliest direct evidence of caprine domestication in southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Pleurdeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506558808"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Imalwa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55313695600"}, {"first_name"=>"Florent", "last_name"=>"Détroit", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504774261"}, {"first_name"=>"Joséphine", "last_name"=>"Lesur", "scopus_author_id"=>"26033996900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anzel", "last_name"=>"Veldman", "scopus_author_id"=>"55312950200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Jacques", "last_name"=>"Bahain", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602871379"}, {"first_name"=>"Eugène", "last_name"=>"Marais", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003708355"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22808138", "sgr"=>"84863839456", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0040340", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863839456", "pui"=>"365242082", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"53d18e55-4052-3f13-befc-973893762643", "abstract"=>"The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sheep-men-earliest-direct-evidence-caprine-domestication-southern-africa-leopard-cave-erongo-namibia", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>9, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>9}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610603"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of archaeological remains found in Layers 5, 6 and 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "e-w", "leopard", "dated"], "article_id"=>281089, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Synthetic_stratigraphic_section_E_W_transversal_of_7_8_band_of_Leopard_Cave_in_cm_with_location_of_the_dated_samples_/281089", "title"=>"Synthetic stratigraphic section E-W (transversal) of 7/8 band of Leopard Cave (in cm), with location of the dated samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:37:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/611056"], "description"=>"<p>Faunal list of the squares N7, M7 and O7 (layers 5 and 6) of Leopard Cave.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["squares", "m7", "o7", "leopard"], "article_id"=>281538, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Faunal_list_of_the_squares_N7_M7_and_O7_layers_5_and_6_of_Leopard_Cave_/281538", "title"=>"Faunal list of the squares N7, M7 and O7 (layers 5 and 6) of Leopard Cave.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:39:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610418"], "description"=>"<p>Plan of the cave and location of the excavated area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leopard"], "article_id"=>280900, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Leopard_Cave_Omandumba_West_Erongo_Namibia_/280900", "title"=>"Location of Leopard Cave (Omandumba West, Erongo, Namibia).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:36:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610798"], "description"=>"<p>Later Stone Age sites of southern Africa with early evidence of caprines (after <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Henshilwood2\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>15]</b></a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Robbins1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Albrecht1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Bousman1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Sandelowsky2\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Jacobson1\" target=\"_blank\">[57]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Robbins2\" target=\"_blank\">[72]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Walker2\" target=\"_blank\">[83]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-Schweitzer1\" target=\"_blank\">[87]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "africa", "caprines"], "article_id"=>281286, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Later_Stone_Age_sites_of_southern_Africa_with_early_evidence_of_caprines_after_15_17_19_30_34_57_72_83_87_/281286", "title"=>"Later Stone Age sites of southern Africa with early evidence of caprines (after [<b>15]</b>–[17], [19], [30], [34], [57], [72], [83]–[87]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:38:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610928"], "description"=>"<p><sup>14</sup>C dates at Leopard cave (calibration curve: SHCal 04 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340#pone.0040340-McCormac1\" target=\"_blank\">[71]</a>, using OxCal 4.1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dates", "leopard", "shcal", "04", "oxcal"], "article_id"=>281409, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_14_C_dates_at_Leopard_cave_calibration_curve_SHCal_04_71_using_OxCal_4_1_/281409", "title"=>"<sup>14</sup>C dates at Leopard cave (calibration curve: SHCal 04 [71], using OxCal 4.1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:39:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610715"], "description"=>"<p>Cheek teeth from sheep/goat at Leopard Cave (Sq. N7, Layers 5 & 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["teeth", "leopard", "layers"], "article_id"=>281204, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cheek_teeth_from_sheep_goat_at_Leopard_Cave_Sq_N7_Layers_5_amp_6_/281204", "title"=>"Cheek teeth from sheep/goat at Leopard Cave (Sq. N7, Layers 5 & 6).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:37:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/610970"], "description"=>"<p>mean aperture of unfinished beads (n = 13) = 1,43mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aperture", "thickness", "finished", "beads", "leopard"], "article_id"=>281460, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_External_and_aperture_diameters_and_thickness_of_finished_beads_of_Leopard_cave_in_mm_/281460", "title"=>"External and aperture diameters, and thickness of finished beads of Leopard cave (in mm).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:39:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/611009"], "description"=>"<p>N: Number of specimens; min: minimum; max: maximum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caprines", "teeth", "leopard", "compared", "african", "specimens", "naturelle"], "article_id"=>281492, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David Pleurdeau", "Emma Imalwa", "Florent Détroit", "Joséphine Lesur", "Anzel Veldman", "Jean-Jacques Bahain", "Eugène Marais"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_in_mm_of_the_caprines_teeth_from_Leopard_Cave_A_Upper_M2_B_Lower_M3_compared_with_modern_african_specimens_from_the_Mus_233_um_National_d_Histoire_Naturelle_MNHN_/281492", "title"=>"Measurements (in mm) of the caprines teeth from Leopard Cave (A: Upper M2; B: Lower M3) compared with modern african specimens from the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:39:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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