Excessive Attractor Instability Accounts for Semantic Priming in Schizophrenia
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{"title"=>"Excessive attractor instability accounts for semantic priming in schizophrenia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Itamar", "last_name"=>"Lerner", "scopus_author_id"=>"55320832500"}, {"first_name"=>"Shlomo", "last_name"=>"Bentin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004360550"}, {"first_name"=>"Oren", "last_name"=>"Shriki", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506619366"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22844407", "sgr"=>"84864231114", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0040663", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864231114", "pui"=>"365316204", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6eb65f64-1533-3649-b259-832d8980b38d", "abstract"=>"One of the most pervasive findings in studies of schizophrenics with thought disorders is their peculiar pattern of semantic priming, which presumably reflects abnormal associative processes in the semantic system of these patients. Semantic priming is manifested by faster and more accurate recognition of a word-target when preceded by a semantically related prime, relative to an unrelated prime condition. Compared to control, semantic priming in schizophrenics is characterized by reduced priming effects at long prime-target Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) and, sometimes, augmented priming at short SOA. In addition, unlike controls, schizophrenics consistently show indirect (mediated) priming (such as from the prime 'wedding' to the target 'finger', mediated by 'ring'). In a previous study, we developed a novel attractor neural network model with synaptic adaptation mechanisms that could account for semantic priming patterns in healthy individuals. Here, we examine the consequences of introducing attractor instability to this network, which is hypothesized to arise from dysfunctional synaptic transmission known to occur in schizophrenia. In two simulated experiments, we demonstrate how such instability speeds up the network's dynamics and, consequently, produces the full spectrum of priming effects previously reported in patients. The model also explains the inconsistency of augmented priming results at short SOAs using directly related pairs relative to the consistency of indirect priming. Further, we discuss how the same mechanism could account for other symptoms of the disease, such as derailment ('loose associations') or the commonly seen difficulty of patients in utilizing context. Finally, we show how the model can statistically implement the overly-broad wave of spreading activation previously presumed to characterize thought-disorders in schizophrenia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/excessive-attractor-instability-accounts-semantic-priming-schizophrenia", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604293"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of common semantic priming results of controls vs. schizophrenics for short SOA using directly and indirectly related pairs and for long SOA using directly related pairs. Two representative short-SOA results of directly related pairs are displayed to demonstrate the common inconsistency of this condition in the literature. Means and STDs are taken from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663#pone.0040663-Barch1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663#pone.0040663-Moritz2\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663#pone.0040663-Minzenberg2\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["priming", "schizophrenics"], "article_id"=>274785, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Semantic_priming_in_schizophrenics_and_controls_/274785", "title"=>"Semantic priming in schizophrenics and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:01:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604370"], "description"=>"<p>A: Model Architecture. Patterns representing related concepts are correlated in the semantic network but uncorrelated in the lexical network. Active neurons of two example patterns representing ‘dog’ and ‘cat’ are marked. Connections between networks are from active neurons of a pattern in one network to all the corresponding active neurons in the other network. For simplicity, only some of these connections are drawn. B: Examples of pairs used in the simulation trials, organized by relatedness condition. C: Example of expected chain of events in a semantic priming simulation. Lexical network converges to the prime pattern, followed by convergence of the semantic network. When target appears, the lexical network converges to the appropriate target pattern under the influence of the semantic network. No latching dynamics is assumed in the example.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "Computational biology", "neuroscience", "computer science"], "article_id"=>274866, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outline_of_the_model_and_its_dynamics_/274866", "title"=>"Outline of the model and its dynamics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:02:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604464"], "description"=>"<p>Depression of synaptic strength over time, for the control and schizophrenic network conditions. Results were obtained by simulating the depression dynamics of one synaptic connection when the pre-synaptic neuron was fully activated. The synaptic strength is normalized by the initial (full) strength. Synapses in the schizophrenic network condition show an accelerated rate of depression due to a higher utilization of synaptic resources.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schizophrenics", "controls"], "article_id"=>274959, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Synaptic_depression_of_schizophrenics_and_controls_in_the_model_/274959", "title"=>"Synaptic depression of schizophrenics and controls in the model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:02:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604506"], "description"=>"<p>The first and third neighborhoods are shown (The second and fourth neighborhoods had similar connections, with no further connections between the four neighborhoods). Specific words are attached to the concept numbers for easier conceptualization. Connections between concepts are indicated by the lines connecting the circles, with basic-strength relations drawn in black and strong relations drawn in red. The connections form two basic neighborhoods, animals and liquid foods, with some connections crossing between neighborhoods. Word pairs like <i>Bull</i>-<i>Cow</i> or <i>Bouillon</i>-<i>Soup</i> are examples of the first-type pairs. <i>Milk</i>-<i>Cow</i> and <i>Chicken</i>-<i>Soup</i> are examples of the second-type pairs (see text for details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["concepts"], "article_id"=>275007, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relatedness_between_concepts_in_the_simulations_/275007", "title"=>"Relatedness between concepts in the simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:02:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604582"], "description"=>"<p>Each graph presents the correlation of the network state, along time, with each of the 17 stored patterns (including baseline; not all lines are seen as they often coincide). Semantic and lexical network are presented separately. A: Typical related trial of the schizophrenic network. The semantic network commits a transition which causes the lexical network to converge quickly to the target state. B: A different related trial of the schizophrenic network, in which the semantic network jumps to a pattern other than the target. C: Typical related trial of the control network. The semantic network maintains stability over the ISI. RT of the lexical network is not as short as in the typical schizophrenic case (shown in A). D: An unrelated trial of the control network, when a transition took place. RT of the lexical network is slower than in the other examples because of the unrelatedness between prime and target.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["short-soa", "trials", "controls", "schizophrenics", "simulation"], "article_id"=>275075, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_short_SOA_trials_of_controls_and_schizophrenics_in_simulation_1_/275075", "title"=>"Typical short-SOA trials of controls and schizophrenics in simulation 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:03:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604678"], "description"=>"<p>A: Occurrences of transitions at short SOA (Simulation 1). B: Occurrences of transitions at long SOA (Simulation 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["events", "schizophrenic"], "article_id"=>275178, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_transition_events_for_the_control_and_schizophrenic_networks_/275178", "title"=>"Distribution of transition events for the control and schizophrenic networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:03:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604736"], "description"=>"<p>Direct and indirect priming effects for the control and schizophrenic networks as a function of the Type-I primes ratio at short SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulation"], "article_id"=>275237, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primings_effects_in_simulation_1_/275237", "title"=>"Primings effects in simulation 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:04:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604829"], "description"=>"<p>A: Typical related trial of the schizophrenic network. The semantic network engages in a series of semantic transitions within the semantic neighborhood of the prime. B: Another typical related trial of the schizophrenic network, in which the semantic network jumps away from the semantic neighborhood of the prime. The lexical network converges more slowly on the target pattern compared to A. C: Typical related trial of the control network. Transitions are less frequent compared with the schizophrenic network and remain within the neighborhood of the prime during the entire ISI. D: Another typical trial of the control network, with unrelated prime-target pair.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["long-soa", "trials", "controls", "schizophrenics", "simulation"], "article_id"=>275323, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_long_SOA_trials_of_controls_and_schizophrenics_in_simulation_2_/275323", "title"=>"Typical long-SOA trials of controls and schizophrenics in simulation 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:04:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604923"], "description"=>"<p>Direct priming effects for the control and schizophrenic networks as a function of the Type-I primes ratio at long SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulation"], "article_id"=>275415, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primings_effects_in_simulation_2_/275415", "title"=>"Primings effects in simulation 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:05:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604965"], "description"=>"<p>Indirect and long SOA results were averaged across Type-I prime ratio. The two results of direct pairs at short SOA were averaged across either the 0.75 and 2 Type-I prime ratio (I) or the 0 and 0.25 ratio (II), to emphasize their dependency on the stimuli list. Similarly to the experimental results, schizophrenics show hyper-priming with indirectly related pairs at short SOA, diverse results using directly related pairs at short SOA and hypo-priming with directly related pairs at long SOAs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["semantic", "priming", "simulations"], "article_id"=>275457, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_semantic_priming_results_of_simulations_1_and_2_/275457", "title"=>"Summary of semantic priming results of simulations 1 and 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:05:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/605008"], "description"=>"<p>The mean correlation across trials of the network state with the prime concept (1), its strongly related concept (2), indirectly related concept (9) and an unrelated concept (16) was computed for 150 ms and 200 ms after prime onset, separately for the control and schizophrenic network. For presentation purposes, the values of the related, indirectly related and unrelated patterns were replicated twice and interpolation was performed between each value in order to get a smooth symmetric wave-like graph. Data is based on the high Type-I prime ratio data from simulation 1. Only trials when the prime was pattern 1 were considered. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663#pone.0040663-Lerner1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spreading", "activation", "schizophrenic"], "article_id"=>275506, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_spreading_activation_of_the_control_vs_schizophrenic_networks_/275506", "title"=>"Statistical spreading activation of the control vs. schizophrenic networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:05:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/605081"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters in the model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "Computational biology", "neuroscience", "computer science"], "article_id"=>275574, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Itamar Lerner", "Shlomo Bentin", "Oren Shriki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040663.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_in_the_model_/275574", "title"=>"Parameters in the model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:06:10"}

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Relative Metric

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