Resilient Networks of Ant-Plant Mutualists in Amazonian Forest Fragments
Publication Date
August 09, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Heather A. Passmore, Emilio M. Bruna, Sylvia M. Heredia & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
Volume
7
Issue
8
Pages
e40803
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0040803
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22912666
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415396
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22912666
Web of Science
000307378500003
Scopus
84865028355
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/resilient-networks-antplant-mutualists-amazonian-forest-fragments
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Resilient networks of ant-plant mutualists in amazonian forest fragments", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Heather A.", "last_name"=>"Passmore", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003752135"}, {"first_name"=>"Emilio M.", "last_name"=>"Bruna", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701528148"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvia M.", "last_name"=>"Heredia", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601966775"}, {"first_name"=>"Heraldo L.", "last_name"=>"Vasconcelos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003326559"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865028355", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0040803", "sgr"=>"84865028355", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22912666", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365442064"}, "id"=>"c4d7d5fb-38c1-3d9d-ac45-2d10b208326b", "abstract"=>"Background The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks could lead to cascades of extinctions.Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated effects of fragmentation on mutualistic networks by calculating metrics of network structure for ant-plant networks in continuous Amazonian forests with those in forest fragments. We hypothesized that networks in fragments would have fewer species and higher connectance, but equal nestedness and resilience compared to forest networks. Only one of the nine metrics we compared differed between continuous forest and forest fragments, indicating that networks were resistant to the biotic and abiotic changes that accompany fragmentation. This is partially the result of the loss of only specialist species with one connection that were lost in forest fragments. We found that the networks of ant-plant mutualists in twenty-five year old fragments are similar to those in continuous forest, suggesting these interactions are resistant to the detrimental changes associated with habitat fragmentation, at least in landscapes that are a mosaic of fragments, regenerating forests, and pastures. However, ant-plant mutualistic networks may have several properties that may promote their persistence in fragmented landscapes. Proactive identification of key mutualist partners may be necessary to focus conservation efforts on the interactions that insure the integrity of network structure and the ecosystems services networks provide.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/resilient-networks-antplant-mutualists-amazonian-forest-fragments", "reader_count"=>110, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>18, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>76, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>76}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "India"=>2, "Czech Republic"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Brazil"=>12, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593964"], "description"=>"<p>For each network, the bars on left represent plant species and bars on the right represent ant species; the width of the grey lines connecting them represents the frequency of that interaction. (A) Plots in Continuous Forest (CF), from left to right: “Camp 41”, “Dimona”, “Florestal” and “Porto Alegre”. (B). Plots in Forest Fragments (FF), from left to right: “Porto Alegre”, “Colosso”, “2108” and “2107”. See Bruna <i>et al. </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone.0040803-Bruna1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a> for the location and description of these sites; for a key to the plant and ant species see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone-0040803-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["networks"], "article_id"=>264457, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ant_plant_networks_for_individual_plots_/264457", "title"=>"Ant-plant networks for individual plots.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 01:14:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/594106"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in bold are the same as those used to identify species in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone-0040803-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone-0040803-g002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a>. Note that unoccupied plants (U) of all species were primarily seedlings <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone.0040803-Bruna1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>.</p>1<p>Ant species: 1 <i>Allomerus decemarticulatus</i> (Ad), 2 <i>Allomerus octoarticulatus</i> (Ao), 3 <i>Allomerus septemarticulatus</i> (As), 4 <i>Azteca</i> spp. (Az), 5 <i>Camponotus balzani</i> (Cab), 6 <i>Crematogaster laevis</i> (Cl), 7 <i>Myrcidris epicharis</i> (Me), 8 <i>Pseudomyrmex concolor</i> (Pc), 9 <i>Pseudomyrmex nigrescens</i> (Pn), 10 <i>Pheidole minutula</i> (Pm).</p>2<p>Unoccupied plants (U).</p>3<p>Plant species: 1 <i>Cecropia purpurascens</i> (Cp), 2 <i>Cordia nodosa</i> (Cn), 3 <i>Duroia saccifera</i> (Ds), 4 <i>Hirtella myrmecophila</i> (Hm), 5 <i>Hirtella physophora</i> (Hp), 6 <i>Maieta guianensis</i> (Mg), 7 <i>Myrcia madida</i> (Mm), 8 <i>Porouma</i> spp. (Pr), 9 <i>Tachigali myrmecophila</i> (Tm), 10 <i>Tachigali pumblea</i> (Tp), 11 <i>Tachigali venusta</i> (Tv), 12 <i>Tococa bullifera</i> (Tb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["obligate", "ant-myrmechophyte", "observed", "plots"], "article_id"=>264602, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Matrix_of_the_frequency_of_each_obligate_ant_myrmechophyte_interaction_observed_in_continuous_forest_all_plots_combined_/264602", "title"=>"Matrix of the frequency of each obligate ant-myrmechophyte interaction observed in continuous forest (all plots combined).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 01:16:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311092"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks could lead to cascades of extinctions.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We evaluated effects of fragmentation on mutualistic networks by calculating metrics of network structure for ant-plant networks in continuous Amazonian forests with those in forest fragments. We hypothesized that networks in fragments would have fewer species and higher connectance, but equal nestedness and resilience compared to forest networks. Only one of the nine metrics we compared differed between continuous forest and forest fragments, indicating that networks were resistant to the biotic and abiotic changes that accompany fragmentation. This is partially the result of the loss of only specialist species with one connection that were lost in forest fragments.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>We found that the networks of ant-plant mutualists in twenty-five year old fragments are similar to those in continuous forest, suggesting these interactions are resistant to the detrimental changes associated with habitat fragmentation, at least in landscapes that are a mosaic of fragments, regenerating forests, and pastures. However, ant-plant mutualistic networks may have several properties that may promote their persistence in fragmented landscapes. Proactive identification of key mutualist partners may be necessary to focus conservation efforts on the interactions that insure the integrity of network structure and the ecosystems services networks provide.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["resilient", "networks", "ant-plant", "mutualists", "amazonian", "fragments"], "article_id"=>121365, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Resilient_Networks_of_Ant_Plant_Mutualists_in_Amazonian_Forest_Fragments/121365", "title"=>"Resilient Networks of Ant-Plant Mutualists in Amazonian Forest Fragments", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 00:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593866"], "description"=>"<p>For each network vertical bars on the left represent plant abundance and bars on the right represent ant abundance; the width of the grey lines connecting them represents the frequency of that interaction. Ant species: 1 <i>Allomerus decemarticulatus</i>, 2 <i>Allomerus octoarticulatus</i>, 3 <i>Allomerus septemarticulatus</i>, 4 <i>Azteca</i> spp., 5 <i>Camponotus balzani</i>, 6 <i>Crematogaster laevis</i>, 7 <i>Myrcidris epicharis</i>, 8 <i>Pseudomyrmex concolor</i>, 9 <i>Pseudomyrmex nigrescens</i>, 10 <i>Pheidole minutula</i>. Plant species: 1 <i>Cecropia purpurascens</i>, 2 <i>Cordia nodosa</i>, 3 <i>Duroia saccifera</i>, 4 <i>Hirtella myrmecophila</i>, 5 <i>Hirtella physophora</i>, 6 <i>Maieta guianensis</i>, 7 <i>Myrcia madida</i>, 8 <i>Porouma</i> spp., 9 <i>Tachigali myrmecophila</i>, 10 <i>Tachigali pumblea</i>, 11 <i>Tachigali venusta</i>, 12 <i>Tococa bullifera</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pooled"], "article_id"=>264363, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Networks_for_Continuous_Forest_left_and_Forest_Fragment_right_based_on_data_pooled_across_all_sites_/264363", "title"=>"Networks for Continuous Forest (left) and Forest Fragment (right) based on data pooled across all sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 01:12:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/594076"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in bold are the same as those used to identify species in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone-0040803-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone-0040803-g002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a>. Note that unoccupied plants of all species were primarily seedlings <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803#pone.0040803-Bruna1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>.</p>1<p>Ant species: 1 <i>Allomerus decemarticulatus</i> (Ad), 2 <i>Allomerus octoarticulatus</i> (Ao), 3 <i>Allomerus septemarticulatus</i> (As), 4 <i>Azteca</i> spp. (Az), 5 <i>Camponotus balzani</i> (Cab), 6 <i>Crematogaster laevis</i> (Cl), 7 <i>Myrcidris epicharis</i> (Me), 8 <i>Pseudomyrmex concolor</i> (Pc), 9 <i>Pseudomyrmex nigrescens</i> (Pn), 10 <i>Pheidole minutula</i> (Pm).</p>2<p>Unoccupied plants (U).</p>3<p>Plant species: 1 <i>Cecropia purpurascens</i> (Cp), 2 <i>Cordia nodosa</i> (Cn), 3 <i>Duroia saccifera</i> (Ds), 4 <i>Hirtella myrmecophila</i> (Hm), 5 <i>Hirtella physophora</i> (Hp), 6 <i>Maieta guianensis</i> (Mg), 7 <i>Myrcia madida</i> (Mm), 8 <i>Porouma</i> spp. (Pr), 9 <i>Tachigali myrmecophila</i> (Tm), 10 <i>Tachigali pumblea</i> (Tp), 11 <i>Tachigali venusta</i> (Tv), 12 <i>Tococa bullifera</i> (Tb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["obligate", "ant-myrmechophyte", "observed", "fragments", "plots"], "article_id"=>264566, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Matrix_of_the_frequency_of_each_obligate_ant_myrmechophyte_interaction_observed_in_forest_fragments_all_plots_combined_/264566", "title"=>"Matrix of the frequency of each obligate ant-myrmechophyte interaction observed in forest fragments (all plots combined).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 01:16:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/594041"], "description"=>"1<p>See (10) for a complete description. s = number of species in the web and <i>b<sub>•k</sub></i> and <i>b<sub>k•</sub></i> represent column sum and row sums, respectively, of the plant/ant matrix, i.e., the total number of individuals associated with taxon k.</p>2<p>Nestedness ranges from 0 to 100, with 0 being most nested and 100 indicating complete randomness.</p>3<p>Weighted nestedness ranges from 0 to 1, where 1 is the most nested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant-plant", "mutualist", "networks", "fragments"], "article_id"=>264534, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Heather A. Passmore", "Emilio M. Bruna", "Sylvia M. Heredia", "Heraldo L. Vasconcelos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040803.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metrics_used_to_compare_the_structure_of_ant_plant_mutualist_networks_in_Continuous_Forest_CF_and_Forest_Fragments_FF_and_results_of_statistical_analyses_/264534", "title"=>"Metrics used to compare the structure of ant-plant mutualist networks in Continuous Forest (CF) and Forest Fragments (FF) and results of statistical analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-09 01:15:34"}

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Relative Metric

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