Were Multiple Stressors a ‘Perfect Storm’ for Northern Gulf of Mexico Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in 2011?
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{"title"=>"Were multiple stressors a 'perfect storm' for northern gulf of mexico bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) in 2011?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ruth H.", "last_name"=>"Carmichael", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004864668"}, {"first_name"=>"William M.", "last_name"=>"Graham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201510984"}, {"first_name"=>"Allen", "last_name"=>"Aven", "scopus_author_id"=>"55316997200"}, {"first_name"=>"Graham", "last_name"=>"Worthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602890697"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephan", "last_name"=>"Howden", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004004339"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365274661", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041155", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864022352", "pmid"=>"22815950", "sgr"=>"84864022352"}, "id"=>"46641053-c6b5-3ea5-b661-4efca99cb768", "abstract"=>"An unusual number of near term and neonatal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) mortalities occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in 2011, during the first calving season after two well documented environmental perturbations; sustained cold weather in 2010 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS). Preceding the stranding event, large volumes of cold freshwater entered the nGOM due to unusually large snowmelt on the adjacent watershed, providing a third potential stressor. We consider the possibility that this extreme cold and freshwater event contributed to the pattern of perinatal dolphin strandings along the nGOM coast. During the 4-month period starting January 2011, 186 bottlenose dolphins, including 46% perinatal calves (nearly double the percentage for the same time period from 2003-2010) washed ashore from Louisiana to western Florida. Comparison of the frequency distribution of strandings to flow rates and water temperature at a monitoring buoy outside Mobile Bay, Alabama (the 4(th) largest freshwater drainage in the U.S.) and along the nGOM coast showed that dolphin strandings peaked in Julian weeks 5, 8, and 12 (February and March), following water temperature minima by 2-3 weeks. If dolphin condition was already poor due to depleted food resources, bacterial infection, or other factors, it is plausible that the spring freshet contributed to the timing and location of the unique stranding event in early 2011. These data provide strong observational evidence to assess links between the timing of the DWHOS, other local environmental stressors, and mortality of a top local predator. Targeted analyses of tissues from stranded dolphins will be essential to define a cause of death, and our findings highlight the importance of considering environmental data along with biological samples to interpret stranding patterns during and after an unusual mortality event.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/were-multiple-stressors-perfect-storm-northern-gulf-mexico-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-20-1", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>3}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607753"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Total weekly bottlenose dolphin strandings for each state compared to surface water temperature (30 min intervals), flow (15 min intervals), and salinity (30 min intervals) measured at Mobile Bay, AL. <b>B</b>) Weekly perinatal dolphin strandings, separated by state (following the same legend as panel A). <b>C</b>) Total weekly bottlenose dolphin strandings, separated by carcass condition on the day of response in 2011. Carcass condition is reported using NMFS standard 5-point code in which 1 is live stranded, 2 is freshly dead, and 5 is most highly decomposed. NR  =  Not reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strandings"], "article_id"=>278244, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dolphin_strandings_in_2011_/278244", "title"=>"Dolphin strandings in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607537"], "description"=>"<p>Dolphin strandings are shown separated by age class (defined in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone-0041155-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>) for Louisiana (LA), Mississippi (MS), Alabama (AL), and western Florida (FL) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone.0041155-NOAA2\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>. Unknown  =  data not reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dolphin", "strandings", "gulf", "january", "april"], "article_id"=>278021, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_dolphin_strandings_in_the_northern_Gulf_of_Mexico_January_through_April_2011_/278021", "title"=>"Location of dolphin strandings in the northern Gulf of Mexico, January through April 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:20:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607916"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Weekly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for near shore areas in the nGOM from 1 January - 30 April 2011. The dashed line is the high-frequency temperature data from Mobile Bay (DPHA1 buoy) shown in Fig. 3A. <b>B</b>) 1° longitude×2° latitude grid boxes in which NOAA Weekly Global Sea Surface Temperature SST Model Outputs from OIV2 Optimum Interpolation Analysis (<a href=\"http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/GIS/GIS_DATA/sst_oiv2/index.php\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/GIS/GIS_DATA/sst_oiv2/index.php</a>) were averaged. Inset dots in <b>B</b> indicate sites from which high-frequency local water flow (1) and surface water temperature and salinity (2) data were collected at Mobile Bay, AL. Site 2 is the DPHA1 buoy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mexico", "sst"], "article_id"=>278410, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gulf_of_Mexico_coastal_SST_in_2011_/278410", "title"=>"Gulf of Mexico coastal SST in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607610"], "description"=>"<p>Total biweekly bottlenose dolphin strandings reported in Louisiana (LA), Mississippi (MS), Alabama (AL), and Florida (FL) from January 2003 through April 2011 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone.0041155-NOAA2\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> compared to biweekly mean surface water temperature at Mobile Bay, AL. Potential stressors: I  =  Winter 2010, II  =  DWHOS in the nGOM, III  =  spring freshet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strandings", "compared"], "article_id"=>278109, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dolphin_strandings_compared_to_water_temperature_through_time_/278109", "title"=>"Dolphin strandings compared to water temperature through time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:20:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608213"], "description"=>"<p>AL  =  sites near Mobile Bay, Alabama during January – March 2011 and correspond to data in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone-0041155-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3A</a>. GOM  =  Gulf-wide (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone-0041155-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>) for the same period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dolphin", "strandings", "declines", "january"], "article_id"=>278704, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_peak_dolphin_strandings_to_peak_water_flow_and_temperature_declines_during_January_8211_March_2011_/278704", "title"=>"Comparison of peak dolphin strandings to peak water flow and temperature declines during January – March 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:23:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608183"], "description"=>"<p>LA  =  Louisiana, MS  =  Mississippi, AL  =  Alabama, FL  =  Florida. NMFS independently validated Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program data up to 2008, and data from February 2010 through August 2011 have been audited by NMFS. Data are subject to change prior to NMFS validation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bottlenose", "dolphin", "strandings", "january", "30", "april"], "article_id"=>278673, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_bottlenose_dolphin_strandings_by_state_1_January_8211_30_April_2011_/278673", "title"=>"Total bottlenose dolphin strandings by state (1 January – 30 April 2011).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:23:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608115"], "description"=>"<p>Conductivity (Wm<sup>−1</sup>°C<sup>−1</sup>) as a function of lipid content (%) of blubber for various species of cetaceans [30, G. W. unpubl. Data]. While healthy bottlenose dolphins showed normal seasonal changes in thermal conductivity (higher in summer when dolphin have lower fat insulation and lower in winter when they have more insulation), emaciated dolphins showed depleted lipid content and, therefore, the highest conductivity values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dolphin", "blubber"], "article_id"=>278610, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bottlenose_dolphin_blubber_condition_/278610", "title"=>"Bottlenose dolphin blubber condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607994"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) CODAR surface currents measured on 1 January 2011 (blue vectors) at CODAR stations in MS, AL, and FL (green triangles). The red dot indicates the initial position of the pseudo-particle for trajectory runs. <b>B</b>) Pseudo-water parcel trajectories initialized on 1 January 2011 (red line), 1 March 2011 (blue line), and 1 April 2011 (green line). For temporal reference, black crosses are plotted every 7 days on each trajectory.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codar", "mississippi"], "article_id"=>278485, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_current_data_measured_by_CODAR_in_the_Mississippi_Bight_/278485", "title"=>"Surface current data measured by CODAR in the Mississippi Bight.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:22:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/607841"], "description"=>"<p>The statistically best-fit distribution of total weekly bottlenose dolphin strandings during January – April 2011 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155#pone.0041155-NOAA2\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>. Red lines show the individual components of the best-fit mixture distribution (green), and red triangles indicate the mean of each component distribution. Overlapping distributions were fit iteratively using maximum likelihood of variable combinations (mean, variance, and proportion of each distribution) in the ‘mixdist’ package 0.5–3 in R 2.13.0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2011", "dolphin"], "article_id"=>278333, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ruth H. Carmichael", "William M. Graham", "Allen Aven", "Graham Worthy", "Stephan Howden"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041155.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mixed_distribution_analysis_of_2011_dolphin_strandings_/278333", "title"=>"Mixed distribution analysis of 2011 dolphin strandings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:21:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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