Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians
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{"title"=>"Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Viola", "last_name"=>"Grugni", "scopus_author_id"=>"34167864100"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincenza", "last_name"=>"Battaglia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004855733"}, {"first_name"=>"Baharak", "last_name"=>"Hooshiar Kashani", "scopus_author_id"=>"37008173700"}, {"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Parolo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55173827400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nadia", "last_name"=>"Al-Zahery", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507031248"}, {"first_name"=>"Alessandro", "last_name"=>"Achilli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701652869"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Olivieri", "scopus_author_id"=>"8330210300"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Gandini", "scopus_author_id"=>"54890582200"}, {"first_name"=>"Massoud", "last_name"=>"Houshmand", "scopus_author_id"=>"9434981100"}, {"first_name"=>"Mohammad Hossein", "last_name"=>"Sanati", "scopus_author_id"=>"56071497500"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Torroni", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005843426"}, {"first_name"=>"Ornella", "last_name"=>"Semino", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603787734"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84864018941", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041252", "pui"=>"365274666", "pmid"=>"22815981", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864018941", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c0b01d82-54b2-38fc-b22c-c2e77fafb603", "abstract"=>"Knowledge of high resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup diversification within Iran provides important geographic context regarding the spread and compartmentalization of male lineages in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23), Central Asia (Q-M25), Asia Minor (J2a-M92) and southern Mesopotamia (J1-Page08). In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes. In addition, our results evidence the important role of the Iranian plateau as source and recipient of gene flow between culturally and genetically distinct populations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ancient-migratory-events-middle-east-new-clues-ychromosome-variation-modern-iranians", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608770"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Macro-geographic level: data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252#pone.0041252.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>. (B) Micro-geographic level: data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252#pone-0041252-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>*<p>p<0.05;</p>**<p>p<0.01.</p>a<p><b>Geographic groups:</b> Africa, Balkans, Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Italy, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, South Asia, Turkey.</p>b<p><b>Linguistic groups:</b> Albanian, Armenian, Austro-Asiatic, Burushaski, Cushitic, Dravidian, Georgian, Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic, Semitic, Slavic, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic, Uralic.</p>c<p><b>Ethnic groups:</b> Afro-Iranians+Bandari, Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Azeris, Baluchs, Qeshmi, Gilaks, Kurds, Lurs, Mazandarani, Persians, Turkmens, and Zoroastrians.</p>d<p><b>Geographic groups:</b> Azerbaijan Gharbi, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hormozgan, Isfahan, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kurdistan, Lorestan, Mazandaran, Sistan Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd.</p>e<p><b>Linguistic groups:</b> Altaic (Golestan), Arab (Khuzestan), Armenian (Tehran Armenians), Assyrian (Azerbaijan Gharbi+Tehran Assyrians), Baluch (Sistan Baluchestan), Caspian (Gilan+Mazandaran), NW Iranian branch (Azeri+Kurds), Persian (Fars+Hormozgan+Isfahan+Khorasan+Yazd+Tehran Zoroastrians), SW Iranian branch (Lorestan).</p>f<p><b>Religious groups:</b> Muslim, Zoroastrian and Christian.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>279239, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>56, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AMOVA_analysis_/279239", "title"=>"AMOVA analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:33:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608352"], "description"=>"<p>Left panels: frequency distributions; central panels: variance distributions; right panels: networks. The areas of circles and sectors are proportional to the haplotype frequency in the haplogroup and in the geographic area, respectively, (for details about the colours, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252#pone.0041252.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figures S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252#pone.0041252.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252#pone.0041252.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variance", "distributions", "haplogroup", "lineages", "observed", "iran", "networks", "str"], "article_id"=>278805, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_and_variance_distributions_of_haplogroup_J_lineages_observed_in_Iran_together_with_the_relative_networks_of_the_associated_STR_haplotypes_/278805", "title"=>"Frequency and variance distributions of haplogroup J lineages observed in Iran together with the relative networks of the associated STR haplotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:26:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317094", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317156", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317197", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317248", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317290", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317301", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317331", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317353", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317408", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/317421"], "description"=>"<div><p>Knowledge of high resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup diversification within Iran provides important geographic context regarding the spread and compartmentalization of male lineages in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23), Central Asia (Q-M25), Asia Minor (J2a-M92) and southern Mesopotamia (J1-Page08). In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes. In addition, our results evidence the important role of the Iranian plateau as source and recipient of gene flow between culturally and genetically distinct populations.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migratory", "events", "clues", "y-chromosome", "iranians"], "article_id"=>122595, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>27, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ancient_Migratory_Events_in_the_Middle_East_New_Clues_from_the_Y_Chromosome_Variation_of_Modern_Iranians/122595", "title"=>"Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 00:43:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608708"], "description"=>"a<p>Haplogroup diversity provided only for samples with size larger than 20.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "examined", "iranian"], "article_id"=>279183, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Haplogroup_frequencies_in_the_examined_Iranian_groups_/279183", "title"=>"Haplogroup frequencies (%) in the examined Iranian groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608172"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Azeris and Assyrians, (b) Armenians, Assyrians and Zoroastrians, (c) Persians and Zoroastrians, (d) Bandari and Afro-Iranians. Pie areas are proportional to the population sample size (small pies, N<50; intermediate pies, 50100) and the areas of the sectors are proportional to the haplogroup frequencies in the relative population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["y-chromosome", "haplogroups", "iranian", "14", "provinces", "iraq", "saudi", "arabia", "pakistan"], "article_id"=>278640, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_the_main_Y_chromosome_haplogroups_in_the_whole_Iranian_population_inset_pie_in_the_14_Iranian_provinces_under_study_and_in_East_Turkey_23_Iraq_20_Saudi_Arabia_26_and_Pakistan_24_/278640", "title"=>"Frequencies of the main Y-chromosome haplogroups in the whole Iranian population (inset pie), in the 14 Iranian provinces under study and in East Turkey [<b>23</b>], Iraq [<b>20</b>], Saudi Arabia [<b>26</b>] and Pakistan [<b>24</b>]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:24:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/608596"], "description"=>"<p>For population codes, see Table S1. On the whole, 25% of the total variance is represented: 14% by the first PC and 11% by the second PC. Insert illustrates the contribution of each haplogroup. Characterizing haplogroups are reported with the same population colours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performed", "haplogroup", "frequencies", "iranian", "populations", "compared", "africans", "african", "arabs", "europeans", "turks", "caucasians", "asians"], "article_id"=>279041, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Viola Grugni", "Vincenza Battaglia", "Baharak Hooshiar Kashani", "Silvia Parolo", "Nadia Al-Zahery", "Alessandro Achilli", "Anna Olivieri", "Francesca Gandini", "Massoud Houshmand", "Mohammad Hossein Sanati", "Antonio Torroni", "Ornella Semino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041252.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_performed_using_haplogroup_frequencies_in_the_Iranian_populations_of_the_present_study_yellow_compared_with_those_of_relevant_populations_from_the_literature_East_Africans_in_black_North_African_and_Near_Eastern_Arabs_in_red_/279041", "title"=>"Principal component analysis performed using haplogroup frequencies in the Iranian populations of the present study (yellow) compared with those of relevant populations from the literature (East Africans in black, North African and Near Eastern Arabs in red, Europeans in blue, Turks and Caucasians in green and South Asians in pink).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-18 02:30:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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