The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies
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{"title"=>"The redder the better: Wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew K.", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404296215"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean", "last_name"=>"Chi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35067932900"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Bradley", "scopus_author_id"=>"8261218900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonia", "last_name"=>"Altizer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701756957"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864346763", "pui"=>"365330275", "sgr"=>"84864346763", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041323", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22848463", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041323"}, "id"=>"581466f7-9660-37d3-9328-d6aad1b44a9d", "abstract"=>"The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/redder-better-wing-color-predicts-flight-performance-monarch-butterflies", "reader_count"=>71, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>58, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>58}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Puerto Rico"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602771"], "description"=>"<p>See methods for description of color measurement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hue", "scores", "aggregated", "experiments"], "article_id"=>273257, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Andrew K. Davis", "Jean Chi", "Catherine Bradley", "Sonia Altizer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_of_male_and_female_orange_hue_scores_aggregated_across_experiments_1_8211_3_/273257", "title"=>"Frequency-distribution of male and female orange hue scores aggregated across experiments 1–3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:54:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602858"], "description"=>"<p>Note that the x- and y-axis scales differ for the two sexes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hue", "flown", "monarchs"], "article_id"=>273338, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Andrew K. Davis", "Jean Chi", "Catherine Bradley", "Sonia Altizer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_orange_hue_score_and_distance_flown_on_the_flight_mill_for_all_male_A_and_female_B_monarchs_in_this_study_/273338", "title"=>"Relationship between orange hue score and distance flown on the flight mill for all male (A) and female (B) monarchs in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:55:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602682"], "description"=>"<p>A lightweight rod was attached to a post via a near-frictionless pivot. A thin wire was glued to the thorax of each monarch and the wire was attached to the rod during flight trials. A 5 cm flag was attached to the other end of the rod, and the flag passed through a photogate (not shown) with each rotation so that the speed and duration of flight could be monitored via computer. A video of this apparatus is provided as supplemental material (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323#pone.0041323.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Video S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>273163, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Andrew K. Davis", "Jean Chi", "Catherine Bradley", "Sonia Altizer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>109, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_butterfly_flight_mill_used_in_all_experiments_/273163", "title"=>"Schematic of butterfly flight mill used in all experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:52:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/315692", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/315847", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/315894"], "description"=>"<div><p>The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (<em>Danaus plexippus</em>) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["redder", "monarch", "butterflies"], "article_id"=>122325, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Andrew K. Davis", "Jean Chi", "Catherine Bradley", "Sonia Altizer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Redder_the_Better_Wing_Color_Predicts_Flight_Performance_in_Monarch_Butterflies/122325", "title"=>"The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:38:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602940"], "description"=>"<p>Magnified sections show close-up of scales from each individual.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["monarchs", "span", "hue", "scores"], "article_id"=>273429, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Andrew K. Davis", "Jean Chi", "Catherine Bradley", "Sonia Altizer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041323.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forewings_from_three_monarchs_that_span_the_range_of_hue_scores_values_above_wings_in_this_study_/273429", "title"=>"Forewings from three monarchs that span the range of hue scores (values above wings) in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:57:09"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[333, 576, 707, 814, 908, 1004, 1104, 1197, 1280, 1370, 1449, 1531, 1603, 1673, 1742, 1817, 1886, 1954, 2025, 2098, 2171, 2234, 2304, 2365, 2431]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[368, 635, 753, 861, 975, 1103, 1205, 1302, 1411, 1512, 1630, 1714, 1767, 1840, 1918, 1992, 2095, 2196, 2254, 2308, 2385, 2438, 2520, 2604, 2682]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}]}
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