Sensing the Underground – Ultrastructure and Function of Sensory Organs in Root-Feeding Melolontha melolontha (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) Larvae
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{"title"=>"Sensing the underground - ultrastructure and function of sensory organs in root-feeding Melolontha melolontha (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) larvae", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elisabeth J.", "last_name"=>"Eilers", "scopus_author_id"=>"16042254200"}, {"first_name"=>"Giovanni", "last_name"=>"Talarico", "scopus_author_id"=>"36913451900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bill S.", "last_name"=>"Hansson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103226689"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika", "last_name"=>"Hilker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006391110"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Reinecke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005284047"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84864352473", "pmid"=>"22848471", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864352473", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365330242", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041357"}, "id"=>"404e8784-eac8-3bf0-b45d-f165129cfe89", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Below ground orientation in insects relies mainly on olfaction and taste. The economic impact of plant root feeding scarab beetle larvae gave rise to numerous phylogenetic and ecological studies. Detailed knowledge of the sensory capacities of these larvae is nevertheless lacking. Here, we present an atlas of the sensory organs on larval head appendages of Melolontha melolontha. Our ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigations allow annotation of functions to various sensory structures.\\n\\nRESULTS: Three out of 17 ascertained sensillum types have olfactory, and 7 gustatory function. These sensillum types are unevenly distributed between antennae and palps. The most prominent chemosensory organs are antennal pore plates that in total are innervated by approximately one thousand olfactory sensory neurons grouped into functional units of three-to-four. In contrast, only two olfactory sensory neurons innervate one sensillum basiconicum on each of the palps. Gustatory sensilla chaetica dominate the apices of all head appendages, while only the palps bear thermo-/hygroreceptors. Electrophysiological responses to CO(2), an attractant for many root feeders, are exclusively observed in the antennae. Out of 54 relevant volatile compounds, various alcohols, acids, amines, esters, aldehydes, ketones and monoterpenes elicit responses in antennae and palps. All head appendages are characterized by distinct olfactory response profiles that are even enantiomer specific for some compounds.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Chemosensory capacities in M. melolontha larvae are as highly developed as in many adult insects. We interpret the functional sensory units underneath the antennal pore plates as cryptic sensilla placodea and suggest that these perceive a broad range of secondary plant metabolites together with CO(2). Responses to olfactory stimulation of the labial and maxillary palps indicate that typical contact chemo-sensilla have a dual gustatory and olfactory function.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sensing-underground-ultrastructure-function-sensory-organs-rootfeeding-melolontha-melolontha-coleopt", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602833"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: SEM. A: Two pore plates on the apical segment. B: Pore plate and adjacent sensilla (S5–7) in the lateral protrusion of the subapical segment. C: Pore plate and adjacent cuticle intersection. Apart from occasional openings (see Fig. 4), the surface of the pore plate appears smooth. D–Q: TEM. D: Panoramic view of a transverse section, displaying the thin pore plate cuticle and the large tissue cluster below. E: Layered arrangement of different cell types below the pore plate cuticle. F: Three outer dendritic segments, originating from the inner dendritic segments, deflect towards the pore plate. Note the relatively short ciliary portion of the outer dendritic segments. G: The pore plate cuticle, penetrated by narrow channels. H: Internally, each channel exhibits a bundle of tubules. I: The tubules contact small dendritic branches (arrowheads). Note the horizontal dendritic branch, originating from a larger profile (bottom right). J: Dendritic profiles with different diameters and branching points (arrowheads) below the pore plate cuticle. K–M: Transverse sections of outer dendritic segment bundles, showing profiles of varying number, diameter and shape. N: Formation of the dendritic sheath around the apex of an inner dendritic segment. O: Cluster of receptor neuron somata close to the central hemolymph space of the apical antennal segment containing a hemocyte. P: Supporting cells surround somata and inner dendritic segments. Q: Region of the receptor somata from where inner dendritic segments protrude with large multilamellar body. Abbr.: bB, basal body; Cu, cuticle; dB, dendritic branch; dS, dendritic sheath; HC, hemocyte; iD; inner dendritic segment; Mi, mitochondrion; mlB, multilamellar body; Mv, microvilli; N, nucleus; oD, outer dendritic segment; pT, pore tubule; RLy, receptor lymph; RN, receptor neuron; S13–14, sensilla 13–14; shC, sheath producing cell; SC, support cell; toC, tormogen cell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pore", "plates", "instar"], "article_id"=>273324, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antennal_pore_plates_of_third_instar_M_melolontha_larvae_/273324", "title"=>"Antennal pore plates of third instar <i>M. melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603271"], "description"=>"<p>A: SEM. Tip of the S3 sensillum. B–F: TEM. B: Transverse sections of the apical part of S3. The central lumen contains an empty dendritic sheath. C: Transverse section of the middle part of S3. The empty dendritic sheath follows a furrow along the inner surface of the shaft. D: Transverse section of the socket of S3 revealing several ensheathed outer dendritic segments. E: Below the socket, the dendrites are surrounded by the receptor lymph producing tormogen cell. F: Some dendritic profiles show microtubules. Note the small profiles (arrowheads). G: SEM. Tip of a S4 sensillum with a terminal pore (arrowhead). H: Oblique section of the pore area of S4 (inset: 3.5× magnification of the pore). I: Subterminal transverse section of the same sensillum. The narrow lumen (4× magnification see inset) contains a thin dendritic sheath but no observable dendrites. J: Transverse section of the center of the sensillum shaft. The still narrow lumen (inset: 3× magnification) houses at least one outer dendritic segment. K: Oblique transverse section of the area where the socket (top left) extends into the shaft (lower right). The dendritic sheath contacts the shaft cuticle (inset: 2× magnification of dendrites). Two cuticular lamellae (arrowheads) flank the dendritic sheath. L, M: Transverse section of the socket, containing a dendritic sheath attached to the cuticle. One dendrite terminates in a tubular body. Not all dendrites exhibit clear microtubules. N: Oblique longitudinal section of the innervation of a S4 sensillum. The dendritic sheath is adjacent to the extensions of its origin, the thecogen cell. Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; dS, dendritic sheath; fCu, flexible cuticle; Fo, fold; Mv, microvilli; oD, outer dendritic segment; RLy, receptor lymph; shC, sheath producing cell; tB, tubular body; toC, tormogen cell; tP, terminal pore.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s4", "sensilla", "larval"], "article_id"=>273769, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S3_and_S4_sensilla_on_M_melolontha_larval_antennae_/273769", "title"=>"S3 and S4 sensilla on <i>M. melolontha</i> larval antennae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:02:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604026"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>blue bars</b>)<b>, maxillary</b> (<b>pink bars</b>) <b>and labial palps</b> (<b>green bars</b>) <b>from third instar </b><b><i>M. melolontha</i></b><b> larvae whole-body mounts</b> (<b>n = 15 replicates on 6 animals</b> (<b>1–3 per animal</b>))<b>.</b> Response to respective controls (empty pipette, DCM, dist. water and DCM supplemented by 20% water) has been subtracted. The grey bars behind colored bars display gross responses without solvent correction. Asterisks indicate significantly higher responses to the tested compound than to respective solvents (Welch two sample t-tests with sqrt transformed data). Significance levels: *** at p<0.001; ** at p<0.01 and * at p<0.05. A: alcohols, ketones and aldehydes at a concentration of 1µg/µl in DCM. B: Undiluted compounds, stimulation with empty pipette and CO<sub>2</sub>, C: Amines, esters at a concentration of 1µg/µl in DCM and acids at the same concentration in DCM supplemented by 20% dist. water. D: Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and solvents at a concentration of 1µg/µl in DCM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eag", "epg", "amplitudes", "recordings"], "article_id"=>274522, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_EAG_and_EPG_amplitudes_for_recordings_on_antennae_/274522", "title"=>"Mean EAG and EPG amplitudes for recordings on antennae", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:15:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602415"], "description"=>"<p>A: Macro photograph. Frontal view on the head and the anterior body. B–H: SEM. B: Ventral view on the larval mouthparts showing labium and maxillae with their palps. In this specimen, the antennae are held below the opened mandibles, thus they become visible in this viewing angle. C: The apical segments of the antenna. The subapical segment bears a conical cuticular protrusion on its antero-lateral margin. Note the small apical sensilla field (arrowhead). Pore plates are hardly visible. D: Frontal view on the apical sensilla field of the antenna. This specimen possesses seven S4 sensilla. E: Tip of the apical segment of the maxillary palp. On this appendage, several different sensilla occur also below the apical sensilla field. F: The apical sensilla field of the maxillary palps bears the highest number of sensilla among the head sensory organs. G: The apical segment of the small labial palps. H: The apical sensilla field of the labial palps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphology", "mouthpart", "appendages", "instar"], "article_id"=>272903, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gross_morphology_of_head_and_mouthpart_appendages_of_third_instar_Melolontha_melolontha_larvae_/272903", "title"=>"Gross morphology of head and mouthpart appendages of third instar <i>Melolontha melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:48:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603752"], "description"=>"<p>A: SEM. S10 sensillum from the maxillary palp. The surface is slightly sculptured. Dotted lines indicate approximate cutting planes of transverse sections shown in Figures B, D and G. B–K: TEM. B: Oblique transverse section of the apical part of the shaft. The cuticle is porous and the wide lumen is sparsely filled with thin dendritic branches. C: Bundles of short pore tubules are directed towards the lumen of the sensillum. The pore openings (arrowheads) on the surface of the sensillum are very small. D: Oblique transverse section of the basal part of the shaft, where the porous part of the cuticle merges in an non-porous part. Note an inflated outer dendritic segment. E: Small dendritic branches and the large inflated dendritic segment come in close contact with the pore tubles. F: Several dendritic branching points (arrowheads) are visible in this section. G: Oblique section of the socket. H: Magnification of the 18 dendritic segments shown in Figure G. Only few, loosely arranged electron-dense remnants of a dendritic sheath are present. I: This further posterior section shows 10 outer dendritic segments embedded in a matrix of dendritic sheath material. J: Four large outer dendritic segments are present below the socket. K: Finally, only two outer dendritic segments represent the entire innervation of the S10 sensillum. Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; dB, dendritic branches; dS, dendritic sheath; oD, outer dendritic segment; Po, pore; pT, pore tubules; RLy, receptor lymph; toC, tormogen cell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sensillum", "palps"], "article_id"=>274248, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S10_sensillum_of_the_palps_of_M_melolontha_larvae_/274248", "title"=>"S10 sensillum of the palps of <i>M. melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:10:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603567"], "description"=>"<p>A–B: SEM. A: Tip of a S8 sensillum from the maxillary palp with inconspicuous terminal pore (arrowhead) and conspicuous opening (see Figures D, E). B: Magnification of the terminal pore (arrowhead), surrounded by cuticular protrusions. C: TEM. Oblique section of the terminal pore area. D: SEM. The conspicuous opening (arrowhead) is just a deep fold. E, F: Oblique transverse section of the S8 sensillum on the level of the fold (arrowhead). Parts of the collar are visible on the left. A dendritic sheath but no dendritic elements are observable. G, H: Further posterior section of the collar origin, revealing membranous structures in the lumen. I: The dendritic sheath in the shaft center extends along a cuticular lamella, generating a crescent lumen. J: The dendritic sheath in the S8 shaft is very closely allied to the lamella. K: Transverse section below the socket. In this specimen the dendritic sheath encloses four outer dendritic segments. One of them contains conspicuously dense arranged microtubules. L, M: SEM. L: Tip of the S9 sensillum of the maxillary palp. Finger-like protrusions surround the pore (arrowhead). M: S9 with an elevated terminal pore (arrowhead) region. N–T: TEM. N: Oblique section of the pore region with putative pore tubules adjacent to the protrusions. O, P: Lumen below the terminal pore. Magnification reveals streaks of electron-dense material. Q: Channels with a thin lining (putative dendritic sheath) below the tip of S9. R: Putative pore tubules extend towards the central lumen. A dendritic sheath is attached to a cuticular lamella. S: Transverse section of a S9 base with ensheathed outer dendritic segments. T: Seven outer dendritic segments are present below the socket. Abbr.: Co, collar; Cu, cuticle; dS, dendritic sheath; Mv, microvilli; oD, outer dendritic segment; pT, pore tubules; shC, sheath producing cell; toC, tormogen cell; tP, terminal pore.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s9", "sensilla", "larval"], "article_id"=>274065, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S8_and_S9_sensilla_on_M_melolontha_larval_palps_/274065", "title"=>"S8 and S9 sensilla on <i>M. melolontha</i> larval palps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:07:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602641"], "description"=>"<p>A: SEM. The digitiform organ is situated on the bottom of a cuticular depression. Note a row of flat pits (S13) and bent furrows (S14). Dotted lines indicate approximate cutting planes of transverse sections shown in figures B, D–G, I, K and M. B–O: TEM. B: Section on the level of the anterior third of the digitiform organ. In addition to the digitiform organ, one S13 is cut obliquely (arrowhead: flat cuticular pit above S13). C: Magnification of S13. An ensheathed tubular body is embedded in the matrix of the endocuticle. D: A further posterior section shows the single ensheathed outer dendritic segment of the S13 sensilla projecting through its receptor lymph cavity. E: Transverse section of the massive aporous tip of the digitiform organ. F: Posterior of the tip, the shaft lumen houses a thin dendritic sheath, which is empty at this section level. G: Outer dendritic segments occur within the middle portion of the digitiform organ. H: Note the lamellar arrangement of the flattened outer dendritic segments. I: Further posteriorly, the number of outer dendritic segments is reduced. J: The profiles of the outer dendritic segments are either round or enlarged polygons. K, L: Close to the base only few outer dendritic segments are observable, M: The socket of the digitiform organ is formed by sclerotized cuticle. Note the outer dendritc segment in the central lumen (arrow). N: Only one outer dendritic segment is present, surrounded by a thick and slightly folded dendritic sheath. O: The integument below the digitiform organ. Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; dS, dendritic sheath; Epi, epidermis; enCu, endocuticle; exCu, exocuticle; oD, outer dendritic segment; RLy, receptor lymph; S13–14, sensilla 1–14; tB, tubular body.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjacent", "sensilla", "larval", "apical", "maxillary"], "article_id"=>273135, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Digitiform_organ_and_adjacent_sensilla_on_M_melolontha_larval_apical_segment_of_the_maxillary_palps_/273135", "title"=>"Digitiform organ and adjacent sensilla on <i>M. melolontha</i> larval apical segment of the maxillary palps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:52:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/602980"], "description"=>"<p>A, B: SEM. A: Here the pore-like openings are plugged. Note small dark spots spread over the surface. B: Higher magnification of a plug within a pore-like opening. C–J: TEM. C: Longitudinal section of a pore-like opening. Although the pore-plate cuticle is fully ruptured by the hour-glass-like duct, its outer half seems to be sealed. D: In this oblique section the duct appears somewhat oval. E: Dendritic branches project into the inner half of the duct. F: This section shows a cuticular protrusion in the duct. G: This protrusion extends as a cuticular thread between the dendritic branches. H: The epidermal support cells have punctual contacts with the pore-plate cuticle. This separates adjacent areas with dendritic branches. I: Mitochondria and electron-dense material are concentrated in the contact areas of the support cells. J: Desmosome-like densities can be observed in the apical membranes of the support cells. Abbr.: cT, cuticular thread; Cu, cuticle; dB, dendritic branch; De, desmosome; Mi, mitochondrion; SC, support cell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pore-like", "openings", "cells", "antennal", "pore", "plates"], "article_id"=>273469, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structure_of_the_pore_like_openings_and_support_cells_of_the_antennal_pore_plates_of_M_melolontha_larvae_/273469", "title"=>"Structure of the pore-like openings and support cells of the antennal pore plates of <i>M. melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:57:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603413"], "description"=>"<p>A–D: SEM. A: Lateral view on the egg-shaped S5 sensillum. Note the large, circular socket. B: Higher magnification of the tip of a S5 sensillum. Finger-like cuticular projections surround a terminal pore. C: Lateral view on a short, blunt S6 sensillum. D: S7 sensillum with a short, conical, bent shaft. Its tip seems to be damaged. The dotted line indicates the approximate cutting plane of the transverse sections shown in Figure E. E: Oblique transverse section of the S7 sensillum. The cuticle of the sensillum is penetrated by numerous pores which connect the outside with the lumen, where outer dendritic segments are present. Note the minute pore openings (arrowhead). Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; oD, outer dendritic segment; Po, pore; tP, terminal pore.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s6", "s7", "sensilla", "antennae"], "article_id"=>273902, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S5_S6_and_S7_sensilla_of_the_antennae_of_M_melolontha_larvae_/273902", "title"=>"S5, S6 and S7 sensilla of the antennae of <i>M. melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:05:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/315067"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Introduction</h3><p>Below ground orientation in insects relies mainly on olfaction and taste. The economic impact of plant root feeding scarab beetle larvae gave rise to numerous phylogenetic and ecological studies. Detailed knowledge of the sensory capacities of these larvae is nevertheless lacking. Here, we present an atlas of the sensory organs on larval head appendages of <em>Melolontha melolontha</em>. Our ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigations allow annotation of functions to various sensory structures.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>Three out of 17 ascertained sensillum types have olfactory, and 7 gustatory function. These sensillum types are unevenly distributed between antennae and palps. The most prominent chemosensory organs are antennal pore plates that in total are innervated by approximately one thousand olfactory sensory neurons grouped into functional units of three-to-four. In contrast, only two olfactory sensory neurons innervate one sensillum basiconicum on each of the palps. Gustatory sensilla chaetica dominate the apices of all head appendages, while only the palps bear thermo-/hygroreceptors. Electrophysiological responses to CO<sub>2</sub>, an attractant for many root feeders, are exclusively observed in the antennae. Out of 54 relevant volatile compounds, various alcohols, acids, amines, esters, aldehydes, ketones and monoterpenes elicit responses in antennae and palps. All head appendages are characterized by distinct olfactory response profiles that are even enantiomer specific for some compounds.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Chemosensory capacities in <em>M. melolontha</em> larvae are as highly developed as in many adult insects. We interpret the functional sensory units underneath the antennal pore plates as cryptic sensilla placodea and suggest that these perceive a broad range of secondary plant metabolites together with CO<sub>2</sub>. Responses to olfactory stimulation of the labial and maxillary palps indicate that typical contact chemo-sensilla have a dual gustatory and olfactory function.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sensing", "underground", "ultrastructure", "sensory", "organs", "root-feeding", "larvae"], "article_id"=>122172, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sensing_the_Underground_Ultrastructure_and_Function_of_Sensory_Organs_in_Root_Feeding_Melolontha_melolontha_Coleoptera_Scarabaeinae_Larvae/122172", "title"=>"Sensing the Underground – Ultrastructure and Function of Sensory Organs in Root-Feeding <em>Melolontha melolontha</em> (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) Larvae", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 00:36:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604153"], "description"=>"<p>Hypothesized function, abundance external morphology and dendritic structure (ODS: outer dendritic segment, TB: tubular body) of sensilla on antennae (A) and maxillary (M) and labial palps (L) in <i>Melolontha melolontha</i> larvae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "morphology", "dendritic", "tubular", "sensilla", "antennae", "maxillary", "labial", "palps"], "article_id"=>274639, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothesized_function_abundance_external_morphology_and_dendritic_structure_ODS_outer_dendritic_segment_TB_tubular_body_of_sensilla_on_antennae_A_and_maxillary_M_and_labial_palps_L_in_Melolontha_melolontha_larvae_/274639", "title"=>"Hypothesized function, abundance external morphology and dendritic structure (ODS: outer dendritic segment, TB: tubular body) of sensilla on antennae (A) and maxillary (M) and labial palps (L) in <i>Melolontha melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:17:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603880"], "description"=>"<p>A–B: SEM. A: S11 sensillum with a pointed tip on a maxillary palp. Dotted lines indicate approximate cutting planes of transverse sections shown in Figures C–F. B: S11 sensillum with a blunt tip from a different maxillary palp. C–G: TEM. C: Oblique section of the sensillum tip. Note the massive cuticle and sparse lumen. D: This section represents the middle portion of the shaft. A lumen is visible, but it is empty. E: Oblique section of the area where the shaft merges in the flexible cuticle of the socket. Note the minute lumen of the shaft. F: A little deeper inside the socket, a thick dendritic sheath with a single tubular body, attached to the flexible cuticle, becomes visible. G: Below the socket only one large ensheathed outer dendritic segment can be found. Note that the number of radial folds of the dendritic sheath changes in different section levels (see inset). H, I: SEM. H: Slightly bent S12 sensillum from the labial palp, bearing a subterminal pore opening (arrowhead). Dotted lines indicate approximate cutting planes of transverse sections shown in Figures J–L. I: The subterminal pore (arrowhead) of this S12 sensillum from a different labial palp opens much closer to the apex (cp. Figure H). J–M: TEM. J: Lamellate dendritic profiles are present in the apical part of the sensillum. K: In this section only two dendritic profiles are visible. L: Shortly above the socket only one dendrite remains inside the dendritic sheath. M: This single dendrite can also be found deeply below the sensillum socket. Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; dB, dendritic branches; dS, dendritic sheath; fCu, flexible cuticle; Mi, mitochondrion; Mv, microvilli; oD, outer dendritic segment; tB, tubular body; tP, terminal pore.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s12", "sensilla", "palps"], "article_id"=>274378, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S11_and_S12_sensilla_of_the_palps_of_M_melolontha_larvae_/274378", "title"=>"S11 and S12 sensilla of the palps of <i>M. melolontha</i> larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:12:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/603129"], "description"=>"<p>A: SEM. Four different setiform sensilla on the apical sensilla field with putative molting-pore (arrowhead) on S1. B–K: TEM. B: Transverse sections of apical S1. The empty lumen is irregularly shaped. C: Transverse section of S1 center with spongiously hollow shaft. D, E: Further basally, the spongious area enlarges. F: Closely above the socket, the cuticle expands, reducing spongious areas. Note the electron dense spot (arrowhead). G: Closely above the socket, two outer dendritic segments are present (inset: 2× magnification of dendrites). H: This oblique longitudinal section shows the innervation of the sensillum base (dotted lines: approximate cutting planes for Figure I, J).I: Transverse section of the S1 socket revealing its flexible cuticle. J: An electron-dense structure, most likely a vesicle filled with granular material (compare with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357#pone.0041357-Chu1\" target=\"_blank\">[76]</a>) is present in one dendrite (inset: 2.5× magnification). K: Transverse section below the socket. L–N: SEM. L–N: Tips of S2 on antenna, maxillary palp and labial palp with finger-like protrusions (arrowheads). O–W: TEM. O, P: Longitudinal section of labial palp S2 (dotted lines: approximate cutting planes for Figures S, T) and magnification of the pore region (dotted lines: approximate cutting planes for Figures Q, R). Q: Transverse section of S2 apex. R: Transverse section below the pore demonstrating lumen bound cuticular threads. S: An empty dendritic sheath is present in the lumen. T: Outer dendritic segments at the base of the shaft. U: Five outer dendritic segments in a S2 socket, one containing a tubular body. V: Longitudinal section depicting the attachment of the tubular body to the socket cuticle. W: Four outer dendritic segments are present in this S2. Abbr.: Cu, cuticle; dS, dendritic sheath; fCu, flexible cuticle; Mv, microvilli; oD, outer dendritic segment; RLy, receptor lymph; S1–4, sensilla 1–4; tB, tubular body; toC, tormogen cell; tP, terminal pore.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s2", "sensilla", "larval"], "article_id"=>273626, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Elisabeth J. Eilers", "Giovanni Talarico", "Bill S. Hansson", "Monika Hilker", "Andreas Reinecke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041357.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S1_and_S2_sensilla_of_M_melolontha_larval_antennae_/273626", "title"=>"S1 and S2 sensilla of <i>M. melolontha</i> larval antennae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-25 01:00:26"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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