Population Processes at Multiple Spatial Scales Maintain Diversity and Adaptation in the Linum marginale - Melampsora lini Association
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{"title"=>"Population processes at multiple spatial scales maintain diversity and adaptation in the linum marginale - Melampsora lini association", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adnane", "last_name"=>"Nemri", "scopus_author_id"=>"23012859800"}, {"first_name"=>"Luke G.", "last_name"=>"Barrett", "scopus_author_id"=>"8563824900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna Liisa", "last_name"=>"Laine", "scopus_author_id"=>"14060507200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy J.", "last_name"=>"Burdon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103146303"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter H.", "last_name"=>"Thrall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003347702"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365351848", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864441926", "pmid"=>"22859978", "sgr"=>"84864441926"}, "id"=>"9d633ede-67f9-3095-adf2-e8dc53021226", "abstract"=>"Host-pathogen coevolution is a major driver of species diversity, with an essential role in the generation and maintenance of genetic variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity. Little is known about how resistance and infectivity are structured across multiple geographic scales and what eco-evolutionary processes drive these patterns. Across southern Australia, the wild flax Linum marginale is frequently attacked by its rust fungus Melampsora lini. Here, we compare the genetic and phenotypic structure of resistance and infectivity among population pairs from two regions where environmental differences associate with specific life histories and mating systems. We find that both host and pathogen populations are genetically distinct between these regions. The region with outcrossing hosts and pathogens that go through asexual cycles followed by sexual reproduction showed greater diversity of resistance and infectivity phenotypes, higher levels of resistance and less clumped within-population spatial distribution of resistance. However, in the region where asexual pathogens infect selfing hosts, pathogens were more infective and better adapted to sympatric hosts. Our findings largely agree with expectations based on the distinctly different host mating systems in the two regions, with a likely advantage for hosts undergoing recombination. For the pathogen in this system, sexual reproduction may primarily be a survival mechanism in the region where it is observed. While it appears to potentially have adverse effects on local adaptation in the short term, it may be necessary for longer-term coevolution with outcrossing hosts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/population-processes-multiple-spatial-scales-maintain-diversity-adaptation-linum-marginale-melampsor", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Design"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/598874"], "description"=>"<p>Mean patterns of resistance in 5 Mountains and 5 Plains populations of <i>L. marginale</i> (30 plants per population) to 6 Mountains and 5 Plains isolates of <i>M. lini.</i> Infection type responses shown by hosts were classified into fully resistant, partially resistant or fully susceptible (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials & Methods</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adaptation", "plains", "mountains", "pathogens", "allopatric", "sympatric"], "article_id"=>269361, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_adaptation_of_Plains_and_Mountains_pathogens_to_their_allopatric_and_sympatric_hosts_/269361", "title"=>"Regional adaptation of Plains and Mountains pathogens to their allopatric and sympatric hosts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:36:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/598802"], "description"=>"<p>Tree of Nei’s genetic distances within and among <i>Linum marginale</i> populations from Mountains and Plains regions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distances", "populations", "mountains", "plains"], "article_id"=>269290, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_of_Nei_s_genetic_distances_within_and_among_Linum_marginale_populations_from_Mountains_and_Plains_regions_/269290", "title"=>"Tree of Nei’s genetic distances within and among <i>Linum marginale</i> populations from Mountains and Plains regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:34:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/599033"], "description"=>"<p>An average of 30 individual hosts from each of 5 Mountains and 5 Plains populations were challenged with 12 differential <i>M. lini</i> isolates. For each population from Mountains (top panel) and Plains (bottom panel), the number of differential isolates to which individual hosts showed resistance is reported, with 0 meaning the hosts were susceptible to all pathogen isolates and 12 meaning the hosts were resistant to all pathogen isolates tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "populations"], "article_id"=>269522, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_differences_in_distribution_of_resistance_to_M_lini_in_populations_of_L_marginale_/269522", "title"=>"Regional differences in distribution of resistance to <i>M. lini</i> in populations of <i>L. marginale.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:38:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314344", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314358", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314397", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/314409"], "description"=>"<div><p>Host-pathogen coevolution is a major driver of species diversity, with an essential role in the generation and maintenance of genetic variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity. Little is known about how resistance and infectivity are structured across multiple geographic scales and what eco-evolutionary processes drive these patterns. Across southern Australia, the wild flax <em>Linum marginale</em> is frequently attacked by its rust fungus <em>Melampsora lini</em>. Here, we compare the genetic and phenotypic structure of resistance and infectivity among population pairs from two regions where environmental differences associate with specific life histories and mating systems. We find that both host and pathogen populations are genetically distinct between these regions. The region with outcrossing hosts and pathogens that go through asexual cycles followed by sexual reproduction showed greater diversity of resistance and infectivity phenotypes, higher levels of resistance and less clumped within-population spatial distribution of resistance. However, in the region where asexual pathogens infect selfing hosts, pathogens were more infective and better adapted to sympatric hosts. Our findings largely agree with expectations based on the distinctly different host mating systems in the two regions, with a likely advantage for hosts undergoing recombination. For the pathogen in this system, sexual reproduction may primarily be a survival mechanism in the region where it is observed. While it appears to potentially have adverse effects on local adaptation in the short term, it may be necessary for longer-term coevolution with outcrossing hosts.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processes", "spatial", "scales", "adaptation"], "article_id"=>122001, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Population_Processes_at_Multiple_Spatial_Scales_Maintain_Diversity_and_Adaptation_in_the_Linum_marginale_Melampsora_lini_Association/122001", "title"=>"Population Processes at Multiple Spatial Scales Maintain Diversity and Adaptation in the <em>Linum marginale</em> - <em>Melampsora lini</em> Association", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 00:33:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/599163"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Spatial autocorrelations of resistance phenotypes (Block distance) were calculated using infection type responses of individuals to 4 pathogen isolates as quantitative traits. (B) Spatial autocorrelations of genetic structure (Tanimoto distance) were calculated using genotype data from 9 microsatellite markers. Distograms were generated for blocks of 0.5 m for the first 8 and 9 metres for resistance phenotypes (A) and genotypes (B) respectively (1000 permutations). Grey lines represent the upper and lower limit of the 99% confidence intervals, within which a spatial autocorrelation of random datapoints resides. The phenotypic (A) and genotypic distances (B) between individuals in transects are depicted with the black line. Datapoints below the lower limit of the 99% confidence interval indicate the distance at which patches are more similar in resistance (A) or genetically (B) than predicted by random distribution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "individuals", "mountains", "plains"], "article_id"=>269650, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fine_scale_spatial_distribution_of_variation_among_L_marginale_individuals_in_two_representative_Mountains_and_Plains_populations_/269650", "title"=>"Fine-scale spatial distribution of variation among <i>L. marginale</i> individuals in two representative Mountains and Plains populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:40:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/598654"], "description"=>"<p>Within each region, 5 host-pathogen population pairs were sampled for regional assessments of host resistance and pathogen infectivity. Genetic characterization of pathogen isolates (collected during the 2006 growing season) was conducted using microsatellite markers. On average, 30 pathogen isolates were tested per population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lineages", "mountains", "plains", "regions", "southeastern"], "article_id"=>269145, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographical_distribution_of_M_lini_lineages_in_the_Mountains_and_Plains_regions_in_southeastern_New_South_Wales_Australia_/269145", "title"=>"Geographical distribution of <i>M. lini</i> lineages in the Mountains and Plains regions in southeastern New South Wales, Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:32:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/598941"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relative phenotype diversity was calculated as the ratio of phenotypes found per population over the number of individuals tested. A value of 1 would mean that all individuals tested were different in the assay. (B) The total number of phenotypes in each region calculated for both host and pathogen. (C) The relative frequency in the region of different phenotypes plotted for host and pathogen in Mountains vs Plains. Phenotypes occurring at a frequency of less than 2% were characterized as “rare” and grouped.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infectivity", "mountains", "plains"], "article_id"=>269433, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_in_resistance_of_L_marginale_and_infectivity_of_M_lini_in_Mountains_and_Plains_regions_/269433", "title"=>"Diversity in resistance of <i>L. marginale</i> and infectivity of <i>M. lini</i> in Mountains and Plains regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:37:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/599294"], "description"=>"<p>Results of GLMMs on the effects of host origin and pathogen lineage on resistance responses at the regional level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glmms", "pathogen", "lineage", "responses"], "article_id"=>269786, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Adnane Nemri", "Luke G. Barrett", "Anna-Liisa Laine", "Jeremy J. Burdon", "Peter H. Thrall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041366.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_GLMMs_on_the_effects_of_host_origin_and_pathogen_lineage_on_resistance_responses_at_the_regional_level_/269786", "title"=>"Results of GLMMs on the effects of host origin and pathogen lineage on resistance responses at the regional level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-31 02:43:06"}

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Relative Metric

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