Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions
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{"title"=>"Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) fail to imitate novel actions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Claudio", "last_name"=>"Tennie", "scopus_author_id"=>"15133386200"}, {"first_name"=>"Josep", "last_name"=>"Call", "scopus_author_id"=>"35578594200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Tomasello", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004816726"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864685106", "sgr"=>"84864685106", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041548", "pmid"=>"22905102", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"365400228"}, "id"=>"c8d3a1f4-ce22-3b4a-8425-876199b094d7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning).\\n\\nMETHODS: Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted--with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy--and he did so across several contexts.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/untrained-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-fail-imitate-novel-actions", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>35, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>2, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>35}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>2, "United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[354, 559, 676, 770, 854, 949, 1040, 1128, 1220, 1295, 1364, 1439, 1511, 1580, 1636, 1693, 1753, 1808, 1882, 1944, 2019, 2070, 2120, 2176, 2247]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[328, 561, 679, 772, 852, 944, 1035, 1122, 1197, 1277, 1354, 1416, 1479, 1549, 1615, 1679, 1740, 1807, 1870, 1937, 1996, 2059, 2118, 2179, 2244]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[360, 554, 661, 756, 829, 913, 992, 1072, 1144, 1228, 1306, 1378, 1439, 1500, 1558, 1627, 1689, 1754, 1826, 1892, 1951, 2009, 2067, 2130, 2200]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[354, 585, 710, 810, 904, 998, 1090, 1181, 1268, 1361, 1435, 1525, 1594, 1657, 1731, 1813, 1878, 1948, 2016, 2094, 2158, 2219, 2294, 2347, 2410]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[336, 562, 679, 770, 848, 938, 1036, 1125, 1198, 1287, 1364, 1425, 1488, 1556, 1618, 1687, 1756, 1817, 1879, 1943, 2011, 2065, 2118, 2186, 2243]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[379, 645, 772, 877, 988, 1089, 1191, 1313, 1410, 1521, 1621, 1696, 1785, 1857, 1932, 2023, 2100, 2186, 2256, 2345, 2429, 2505, 2595, 2646, 2741]}]}
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