Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago
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{"title"=>"Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter J.", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"55169941000"}, {"first_name"=>"Samantha", "last_name"=>"Stoffberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"23010427400"}, {"first_name"=>"Ara", "last_name"=>"Monadjem", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004440617"}, {"first_name"=>"Martinus Corrie", "last_name"=>"Schoeman", "scopus_author_id"=>"8714601000"}, {"first_name"=>"Julian", "last_name"=>"Bayliss", "scopus_author_id"=>"8588102500"}, {"first_name"=>"Fenton P.D.", "last_name"=>"Cotterill", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603760683"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866324470", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041744", "sgr"=>"84866324470", "isbn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22984399", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365652627"}, "id"=>"b4288a58-3d09-3a64-a7c2-7433a81f6959", "abstract"=>"Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an \"Allometric Speciation Hypothesis\", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/four-new-bat-species-rhinolophus-hildebrandtii-complex-reflect-pliopleistocene-divergence-dwarfs-gia", "reader_count"=>113, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>92, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>92}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "South Africa"=>3, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/579020"], "description"=>"<p>This integrates published and new data (this study). N indicates samples size; STDEV indicates standard deviation.</p><p>The revised names for clades are explained under Taxonomic Conclusions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["echolocation"], "article_id"=>249515, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_data_for_peak_echolocation_frequency_of_R_hildebrandtii_s_l_populations_/249515", "title"=>"Summary of data for peak echolocation frequency of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> s.l. populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:38:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304165", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304188", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304196", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304251", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304269", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304281"], "description"=>"<div><p>Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the <em>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</em> species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of <em>R. hildebrandtii</em> senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (<em>R. eloquens</em>). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes <em>R. hildebrandtii</em> sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises <em>R. eloquens</em> from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (<em>ca</em> 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an “Allometric Speciation Hypothesis”, which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plio-pleistocene", "divergence", "dwarfs", "giants", "afromontane", "archipelago"], "article_id"=>119995, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Four_New_Bat_Species_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_Complex_Reflect_Plio_Pleistocene_Divergence_of_Dwarfs_and_Giants_across_an_Afromontane_Archipelago/119995", "title"=>"Four New Bat Species (<em>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</em> Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:46:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578527"], "description"=>"<p>Photographs showing lateral views of noseleafs of selected individuals (including holotypes of new species) of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex representing molecular Lineage 1a ( = <i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.; a–b), Lineage 1b ( = <i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.; c) and Clade 2 ( = <i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; d–f). a = DM 7886 (<i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.;Barberton Tunnel, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa); b = DM 8626 (<i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.; Barberton Tunnel, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa; Holotype); c = DM 10842 (<i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.; Mt Mabu, Mozambique; Holotype ); d = DM 8578 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Niassa Game Reserve, Mozambique; Holotype); e = DM 8579 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Chinizuia, Mozambique); f = DM 8577 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Namapa, Mozambique).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lateral", "views", "noseleafs", "individuals", "holotypes", "molecular", "lineage", "1a", "1b", "clade", "7886", "mpumalanga", "8626", "barberton", "10842", "mt", "holotype", "8578", "niassa", "8579", "8577"], "article_id"=>248981, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_showing_lateral_views_of_noseleafs_of_selected_individuals_including_holotypes_of_new_species_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_representing_molecular_Lineage_1a__cohenae_sp_nov_a_b_Lineage_1b__mabuensis_sp_nov_c_and_Clade_2__mossambic/248981", "title"=>"Photographs showing lateral views of noseleafs of selected individuals (including holotypes of new species) of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex representing molecular Lineage 1a ( = <i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.; a–b), Lineage 1b ( = <i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.; c) and Clade 2 ( = <i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; d–f). a = DM 7886 (<i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.;Barberton Tunnel, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa); b = DM 8626 (<i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.; Barberton Tunnel, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa; Holotype); c = DM 10842 (<i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.; Mt Mabu, Mozambique; Holotype ); d = DM 8578 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Niassa Game Reserve, Mozambique; Holotype); e = DM 8579 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Chinizuia, Mozambique); f = DM 8577 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Namapa, Mozambique).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:29:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578991"], "description"=>"<p>Bold values indicate within-clade distance for control region and values in italics indicate within-clade distances for cytochrome b. Because of the high level of variation, no values are provided for the outgroup <i>Rhinolophus</i> and <i>Hipposideros</i> species for cytochrome b. Revised taxon names for molecular lineages are given in parentheses in the column headings (see Taxonomic Conclusions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pairwise", "distances", "diagonal", "cytochrome", "clades", "lineages", "molecular", "analyses"], "article_id"=>249476, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uncorrected_p_pairwise_sequence_distances_for_the_control_region_below_the_diagonal_and_cytochrome_b_gene_above_the_diagonal_for_the_clades_1_2_3_and_some_lineages_1a_1b_1c_identified_in_the_molecular_analyses_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_/249476", "title"=>"‘Uncorrected p’ pairwise sequence distances for the control region below the diagonal and cytochrome b gene above the diagonal for the clades (1, 2, 3) and some lineages (1a, 1b, 1c) identified in the molecular analyses of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:37:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578223"], "description"=>"<p>Revised taxon names are provided in parentheses (see Taxonomic Conclusions). Skulls which were included in this analysis are indicated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone.0041744.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>. Symbols as is in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone-0041744-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>. Thin plate splines (grids) show landmark distortions represented by extremes of variation on RW1 (left = negative; right = positive) and RW2 (bottom = negative; top = positive) axes. The two skull photographs at the bottom are of actual specimens representing the negative (left: DM 8577, <i>mossambicus</i> from Namapa, Mozambique) and positive (right: DM 11560, <i>cohenae</i> from Mayo, Mpumalanga Province) extremes of variation on RW1. Landmark positions (filled circles) are shown in the photograph in the centre.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warps", "12", "lateral", "cranial", "landmarks", "23", "individuals", "belonging", "molecular", "clades", "lineages", "clade"], "article_id"=>248695, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_warps_analysis_RWA_of_12_lateral_cranial_landmarks_from_23_individuals_of_R_hildebrandtii_s_l_belonging_to_two_molecular_clades_and_two_lineages_of_Clade_1_see_Fig_3_/248695", "title"=>"Relative warps analysis (RWA) of 12 lateral cranial landmarks from 23 individuals of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> s.l. belonging to two molecular clades and two lineages of Clade 1 (see <b>Fig. 3</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:24:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578901"], "description"=>"<p>Freq. = peak (time expansion or full-spectrum detector) or maximum (ANABAT detector) frequency; NLW = nasal width; FL = forearm length; GSL = greatest skull length; CCL = condylo-canine skull length.</p>*<p>Echolocation frequency of holotype not measured but assumed on basis of two released individuals of the same species at Mt Mabu recorded during the same month (October 2008).</p>**<p>We assume the holotype and paratype specimens from the Taita District may have had a CF frequency of <i>ca</i> 42 kHz based on recent recordings from the type locality.</p>***<p>The holotype was not recorded but we assume a CF frequency of 35–38 kHz based on recordings of four bats taken from nearby localities in northern Mozambique.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagnostic", "evolutionary", "lineages"], "article_id"=>249393, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Matrix_showing_diagnostic_traits_and_distribution_of_seven_evolutionary_lineages_within_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_/249393", "title"=>"Matrix showing diagnostic traits and distribution of seven evolutionary lineages within the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:36:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577953"], "description"=>"<p>Open circles = Clade 1a ( = <i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.); closed circles = Clade 1b ( = <i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.); shaded circles = Clade 1d ( = <i>smithersi</i> sp. nov.; Pafuri); asterisk enclosed in circle = Clade 1e ( = <i>smithersi</i> sp. nov.; Zimbabwe); open squares = Clade 2 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Mozambique); shaded squares = Clade 2 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; Lutope, Zimbabwe); open diamonds = <i>R. eloquens</i> type series (Clade 3); crosses in circles = <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> type and co-type (Clade 1c).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variates", "10", "cranial", "variables", "groups", "defined", "molecular", "pca"], "article_id"=>248432, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Canonical_variates_analysis_CVA_a_of_10_cranial_variables_in_five_groups_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_defined_by_molecular_analysis_and_PCA_b_of_five_cranial_variables_for_sample_in_a_with_type_series_of_hildebrandtii_H_and_eloquens_E_added_/248432", "title"=>"Canonical variates analysis (CVA) (a) of 10 cranial variables in five groups of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex defined by molecular analysis; and PCA (b) of five cranial variables for sample in (a) with type series of <i>hildebrandtii</i> (“H*”) and <i>eloquens</i> (“E*”) added.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:20:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577280"], "description"=>"<p>Portraits of (a) <i>Rhinolophus smithersi</i> species novo, and (b) <i>Rhinolophus mossambicus</i> species novo, two of four new cryptic species described herein within the <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> complex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cryptic", "herein"], "article_id"=>247773, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Portraits_of_a_Rhinolophus_smithersi_species_novo_and_b_Rhinolophus_mossambicus_species_novo_two_of_four_new_cryptic_species_described_herein_within_the_R_hildebrandtii_complex_/247773", "title"=>"Portraits of (a) <i>Rhinolophus smithersi</i> species novo, and (b) <i>Rhinolophus mossambicus</i> species novo, two of four new cryptic species described herein within the <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> complex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:09:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578866"], "description"=>"<p>Eigenvectors for PCA of recently collected voucher specimens of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex associated with molecular and acoustic analyses, which includes type specimens of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> and <i>R. eloquens</i> (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone-0041744-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5a</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pca", "voucher", "specimens", "molecular", "acoustic", "includes"], "article_id"=>249355, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eigenvectors_for_PCA_of_recently_collected_voucher_specimens_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_associated_with_molecular_and_acoustic_analyses_which_includes_type_specimens_of_R_hildebrandtii_and_R_eloquens_see_Fig_5a_/249355", "title"=>"Eigenvectors for PCA of recently collected voucher specimens of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex associated with molecular and acoustic analyses, which includes type specimens of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> and <i>R. eloquens</i> (see Fig. 5a).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:35:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578947"], "description"=>"<p>Values in bold refer to within-clade distances for the 12S gene and values in italics refer to the within-clade distances for the Chd1 gene. Because of the high level of variation, no values are provided for the outgroup <i>Rhinolophus</i> and <i>Hipposideros</i> species for cytochrome b. Revised taxon names for molecular lineages are given in parentheses in the column headings (see Taxonomic Conclusions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pairwise", "distances", "12s", "diagonal", "chd1", "clades", "lineages", "molecular", "analyses"], "article_id"=>249431, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uncorrected_p_pairwise_sequence_distances_for_the_12S_gene_below_the_diagonal_and_Chd1_gene_above_the_diagonal_for_the_clades_1_2_3_and_some_lineages_1a_1b_1c_identified_in_the_molecular_analyses_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_/249431", "title"=>"‘Uncorrected p’ pairwise sequence distances for the 12S gene below the diagonal and Chd1 gene above the diagonal for the clades (1, 2, 3) and some lineages (1a, 1b, 1c) identified in the molecular analyses of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:37:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577473"], "description"=>"<p>Grey-shaded area represents elevations in excess of 600 m a.s.l. Closed squares indicate museum specimens from which craniometric data were obtained. Open symbols indicate specimens genotyped in this study. The distribution of the three major clades is based on cytochrome b (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone-0041744-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>): open circles = Clade 1; open squares = Clade 2; open diamonds = Clade 3. Closed squares enclosed in open symbols indicate localities where both molecular and morphological data were available for selected specimens. Numbers refer to respective localities listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone.0041744.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>. “T” indicates the type localities of <i>R. eloquens</i> in Uganda and <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> in Kenya, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["africa", "localities", "individuals", "species-complex", "included"], "article_id"=>247960, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_southern_central_and_eastern_Africa_indicating_localities_of_individuals_of_R_hildebrandtii_species_complex_included_in_this_study_/247960", "title"=>"Map of southern, central and eastern Africa indicating localities of individuals of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> species-complex included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578730"], "description"=>"<p>Bacula of Clade 1a (<i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.) have spatulate tip (rounded in Clades 2 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.) and 1b (<i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.)), typically emarginated basal portion (less so in Clades 2 and 1b) and shaft laterally compressed (cylindrical in Clades 2 and 1b) and sloping downwards in lateral view (horizontal in Clades 2 and 1b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "lateral", "bacula", "individuals", "mpumalanga", "lowland", "sites", "mozambique", "mt", "mabu", "11558", "11620", "topotype", "11560", "11618", "8580", "8578", "holotype", "10842"], "article_id"=>249188, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_D_ventral_V_and_lateral_L_view_of_bacula_tips_on_right_from_four_individuals_a_d_from_Mpumalanga_Clade_1a_cohenae_sp_nov_two_e_f_from_lowland_sites_in_Mozambique_Clade_2_mossambicus_sp_nov_and_one_g_from_Mt_Mabu_in_Mozambique_Clade_1b_mabuensis_sp/249188", "title"=>"Dorsal (D), ventral (V) and lateral (L) view of bacula (tips on right) from four individuals (a–d) from Mpumalanga (Clade 1a = <i>cohenae</i> sp. nov.), two (e–f) from lowland sites in Mozambique (Clade 2 = <i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.) and one (g) from Mt Mabu in Mozambique (Clade 1b = <i>mabuensis</i> sp. nov.). a = DM 11558 (Sudwala); b = DM 11620 (Barberton Tunnel; Topotype of <i>cohenae</i>); c = DM 11560 (Mayo); d = DM 11618 (Barberton Tunnel); e = DM 8580 (Gorongosa); f = DM 8578 (Niassa GR; Holotype of <i>mossambicus</i>); g = DM 10842 (Mt Mabu; Holotype of <i>mabuensis</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:33:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577848"], "description"=>"<p>Females indicated by open circles, males by closed circles or crosses or asterisk. Voucher specimens for molecular sequencing study indicated by asterisk (Clade 1e:  = <i>smithersii</i> sp. nov.; see Taxonomic Conclusions) and crosses (Clade 2:  = <i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.; see Taxonomic Conclusions). Hereafter, all individuals with a frequency of 37 kHz were assumed to belong to Clade 2 (<i>mossambicus</i> sp. nov.) and the 46 kHz individual was assumed to belong to Clade 1e (<i>smithersi</i> sp. nov.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biplot", "forearm", "noseleaf", "width", "pca", "craniometric", "variables", "26", "individuals", "46"], "article_id"=>248321, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphometric_variation_in_a_series_representing_the_R_hildebrandtii_complex_from_Lutope_Ngolangola_Zimbabwe_a_biplot_of_forearm_length_versus_noseleaf_width_and_b_PCA_of_five_craniometric_variables_M3M3_CM3_IOC_NW_NH_in_26_individuals_of_known_37_or_46_k/248321", "title"=>"Morphometric variation in a series representing the <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> complex from Lutope-Ngolangola, Zimbabwe: a) biplot of forearm length versus noseleaf width and b) PCA of five craniometric variables (M3M3, CM3, IOC, NW, NH) in 26 individuals of known (37 or 46 kHz) and unknown (?) frequency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:18:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577658"], "description"=>"<p>The topology represents the consensus topology from a 20 million MCMC run implemented in BEAST. Estimates of divergence times (million years ago; Mya) are indicated adjacent to nodes or above branches and grey bars indicate 95% HPD values. The split between the Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae was used as the calibration point. Taxa names include museum/field numbers which correspond to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone.0041744.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a> or GenBank accession numbers and abbreviations are: RcfH - <i>R. cf. hildebrandtii</i>, RD - <i>R. darlingi</i>, RE - <i>R. eloquens</i>, RF - <i>R. fumigatus</i>, RH - <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> s.l., RL - <i>R. landeri</i> and RR - <i>R. ruwenzorii</i>. Localities, where available, are provided, abbreviations include SA - South Africa, MZ - Mozambique, and ZW - Zimbabwe, and the numbers in parentheses correspond with place names in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone.0041744.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone-0041744-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a> for Clade 1 and 2 individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome", "dataset", "genotyped", "specimens"], "article_id"=>248146, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Consensus_tree_for_the_cytochrome_b_dataset_for_representative_genotyped_specimens_of_the_Rhinolophus_hildebrandtii_complex_/248146", "title"=>"Consensus tree for the cytochrome b dataset for representative genotyped specimens of the <i>Rhinolophus hildebrandtii</i> complex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:15:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578065"], "description"=>"<p>Revised taxon names are provided in parentheses (see Taxonomic Conclusions). Skulls which were included in this analysis are indicated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone.0041744.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>. Symbols as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744#pone-0041744-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>. Thin plate splines (grids) show landmark distortions represented by extremes of variation on RW1 (left = negative; right = positive) and RW2 (bottom = negative; top = positive) axes. The two skull photographs at the bottom are of actual specimens representing the negative (left: TM 41997, <i>smithersi</i> from Pafuri) and positive (right: DM 11560, <i>cohenae</i> from Mayo, Mpumalanga Province) extremes of variation on RW1. Landmark positions (filled circles) are shown in the photograph in the centre.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warps", "13", "dorsal", "cranial", "landmarks", "22", "individuals", "belonging", "molecular", "clades", "lineages", "clade"], "article_id"=>248543, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Peter J. Taylor", "Samantha Stoffberg", "Ara Monadjem", "Martinus Corrie Schoeman", "Julian Bayliss", "Fenton P. D. Cotterill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041744.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_warps_analysis_RWA_of_13_dorsal_cranial_landmarks_from_22_individuals_of_R_hildebrandtii_s_l_belonging_to_two_molecular_clades_and_two_lineages_of_Clade_1_see_Fig_3_/248543", "title"=>"Relative warps analysis (RWA) of 13 dorsal cranial landmarks from 22 individuals of <i>R. hildebrandtii</i> s.l. belonging to two molecular clades and two lineages of Clade 1 (see <b>Fig. 3</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-12 02:22:23"}

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Relative Metric

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