Is the Association between General Cognitive Ability and Violent Crime Caused by Family-Level Confounders?
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{"title"=>"Is the association between general cognitive ability and violent crime caused by family-level confounders?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Frisell", "scopus_author_id"=>"35483792100"}, {"first_name"=>"Yudi", "last_name"=>"Pawitan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003383706"}, {"first_name"=>"Niklas", "last_name"=>"Långström", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603903034"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864239656", "pui"=>"365316873", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041783", "isbn"=>"1932-6203(Electronic)", "sgr"=>"84864239656", "pmid"=>"22911856"}, "id"=>"3bccafdc-f377-313d-989f-210bc8707ef1", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding.\\n\\nMETHODS: We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence) at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980-1993) with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973-2009), among all men born in Sweden 1961-1975 (N = 700,514). Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register) to adjust for shared familial characteristics.\\n\\nRESULTS: Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.19; -0.18), the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.17). The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.14), within half-brothers raised together (β = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.15; -0.11), and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.09). The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error.\\n\\nDISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by factors shared by brothers. However, most of the association remains even after adjusting for such factors.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-between-general-cognitive-ability-violent-crime-caused-familylevel-confounders", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604658"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of men born in Sweden 1961–1975 who were convicted of one or more violent offences 1973–2009 and mean general cognitive ability, divided by sibling type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["men", "sweden", "convicted", "offences", "divided"], "article_id"=>275153, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Thomas Frisell", "Yudi Pawitan", "Niklas Långström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041783.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_men_born_in_Sweden_1961_8211_1975_who_were_convicted_of_one_or_more_violent_offences_1973_8211_2009_and_mean_general_cognitive_ability_divided_by_sibling_type_/275153", "title"=>"Proportion of men born in Sweden 1961–1975 who were convicted of one or more violent offences 1973–2009 and mean general cognitive ability, divided by sibling type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:03:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604579"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of men born in Sweden 1961–1975 convicted of one or more violent offences 1973–2009 as a function of stanine general cognitive ability (intelligence), and fit of the probit model. Observed proportions are depicted for full-brothers (filled squares), half-brothers raised together (T) and apart (A). Grey areas are based on 95% confidence intervals for these proportions, and dark grey specifically represents the overlap of confidence intervals. The lines are predicted values from linear probit regression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["convicted", "inversely"], "article_id"=>275074, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Thomas Frisell", "Yudi Pawitan", "Niklas Långström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041783.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_proportion_convicted_of_violent_crime_is_inversely_associated_with_intelligence_/275074", "title"=>"The proportion convicted of violent crime is inversely associated with intelligence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/604727"], "description"=>"<p><b>Notes:</b> Numbers are probit regression coefficients with 95% confidence interval within brackets.</p><p>A)Adjusted for birth year.</p><p>B)Adjusted for birth year and childhood socioeconomic variables: growing up with single mother, family income, and urbanicity.</p><p>C)Within-pair adjustments also included brother’s corresponding covariates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "offending", "swedish", "men", "unpaired", "stratified"], "article_id"=>275215, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Thomas Frisell", "Yudi Pawitan", "Niklas Långström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041783.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probit_regression_of_general_cognitive_ability_on_violent_offending_1973_8211_2009_in_Swedish_men_born_1961_8211_1975_ordinary_unpaired_analysis_and_within_sibling_pair_stratified_by_sibling_type_/275215", "title"=>"Probit regression of general cognitive ability on violent offending (1973–2009) in Swedish men born 1961–1975, ordinary unpaired analysis and within sibling-pair, stratified by sibling type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:04:04"}

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