Neuroprotective Activities of Palmitoylethanolamide in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Neuroprotective activities of palmitoylethanolamide in an animal model of Parkinson's disease", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emanuela", "last_name"=>"Esposito", "scopus_author_id"=>"56417262900"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela", "last_name"=>"Impellizzeri", "scopus_author_id"=>"36623893100"}, {"first_name"=>"Emanuela", "last_name"=>"Mazzon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005707721"}, {"first_name"=>"Irene", "last_name"=>"Paterniti", "scopus_author_id"=>"26041018000"}, {"first_name"=>"Salvatore", "last_name"=>"Cuzzocrea", "scopus_author_id"=>"35492552100"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365452228", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041880", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22912680", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865106816", "sgr"=>"84865106816"}, "id"=>"8d2faa41-5179-3af0-aacc-7443369edb45", "abstract"=>"The biochemical and cellular changes that occur following treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP) are remarkably similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, which results in disabling motor disturbances. Activation of glial cells and the consequent neuroinflammatory response is increasingly recognized as a prominent neuropathological feature of PD. There is currently no effective disease-modifying therapy. Targeting the signaling pathways in glial cells responsible for neuroinflammation represents a promising new therapeutic approach designed to preserve remaining neurons in PD. Chronic treatment with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), initiated 24 hr after MPTP injection (20 mg/kg), protected against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Treatment with PEA reduced MPTP-induced microglial activation, the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes and S100β overexpression, and protected against the alterations of microtubule-associated protein 2a,b-, dopamine transporter-, nNOS- positive cells in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, chronic PEA reversed MPTP-associated motor deficits, as revealed by the analysis of forepaw step width and percentage of faults. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated MPTP systemic toxicity, while PEA-induced neuroprotection seemed be partially PPARα-dependent. The effects of PEA on molecules typically involved in apoptotic pathways were also analyzed. Our results indicate that PEA protects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and the ensuing functional deficits even when administered once the insult has been initiated.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neuroprotective-activities-palmitoylethanolamide-animal-model-parkinsons-disease", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Psychology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865106816"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865106816?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84865106816&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84865106816&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865106816", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84865106816", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84865106816", "dc:title"=>"Neuroprotective activities of palmitoylethanolamide in an animal model of Parkinson's disease", "dc:creator"=>"Esposito E.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-08-17", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"17 August 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0041880", "citedby-count"=>"78", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Università degli Studi di Messina, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia", "affiliation-city"=>"Messina", "affiliation-country"=>"Italy"}], "pubmed-id"=>"22912680", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e41880", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0041880", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"185"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589134"], "description"=>"<p>Catalepsy was evaluated according to the standard bar hanging procedure (A). In panel B results from Beam Trasversal test are reported. PEA treatment (10 mg/kg) reduced behavioural impairments induced by MPTP in WT mice, but in PPARαKO mice PEA didn't ameliorate motor dysfunction induced by MPTP. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 vs Sham; #p<0.05, ##p<0.01 vs MPTP mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "behavioural", "impairments", "induced"], "article_id"=>259625, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_behavioural_impairments_induced_by_MPTP_/259625", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on behavioural impairments induced by MPTP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:36:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/590231"], "description"=>"<p>Western blot analysis showed a significant expression of GFAP in SN. PEA treatment significantly reduced the activation of astrocytes after MPTP injection. The relative expression of the protein band (∼50 kDa) was standardized for densitometric analysis to β-actin levels, and reported in panel <b>a1</b> are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. from n = 5/6 brains for each group. ***<i>P</i><0.001 <i>versus</i> sham, <sup>###</sup><i>P</i><0.001 <i>versus</i> MPTP+vehicle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "gfap", "activation"], "article_id"=>260725, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_GFAP_expression_a_marker_of_the_activation_of_astrocytes_/260725", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on GFAP expression, a marker of the activation of astrocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:42:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589438"], "description"=>"<p>A strong increase in S100β-immunoreactive cells was observed in MPTP-injected PPARαWT animals at 8 days (B and I). A stronger increase in number of S100β-immunoreactive cells was evident in PPARαKO (C and I). The absence of PPARα gene alone did not modify the presence of S100β-immunoreactive cells in sham animals (A). PEA reduced the increased expression of S100β-immunoreactive cells in the SN in PPARαWT mice (D and I). In addition, administration of MPTP to PPARαWT mice produced an important loss in MAP-2 expression at 8 days (F and I). The absence of PPARα gene significantly increased the loss of MAP-2 positive cells induced by MPTP (G and I). PEA treatment ameliorated in PPARαWT mice (H and I) the sever reductions in MAP-2 levels. PEA failed to rescue S100 and MAP-2 induced by MPTP injection in PPAR-α KO mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "alteration", "map-2"], "article_id"=>259927, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_PEA_on_alteration_of_S100_946_and_MAP_2_expression_in_the_SN_/259927", "title"=>"Effects of PEA on alteration of S100β and MAP-2 expression in the SN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:37:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589302"], "description"=>"<p>An important loss of TH-positive cells was observed in MPTP-injected animals at 8 days after intoxication in PPARαWT (<b>B, see</b> densitometric analysis in I). The absence of PPARα gene in PPARαKO significantly increases the loss of TH-positive cells after MPTP (C and I). The absence of PPARα gene alone did not modify the presence of TH-positive cells in sham animals (A). PEA reduced in PPARαWT mice the MPTP-induced loss of TH-positive neurons in the SN (D and I). Moreover, MPTP injection produced a strong loss of DAT expression at 8 days (F and I). The absence of PPARα gene increases the loss of DAT positive cells (G and I). In panel H and I, PEA treatment ameliorated in PPARαWT mice the sever reductions in levels of DAT. PEA failed to rescue DAT and TH induced by MPTP injection in PPAR-α KO mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "th", "dat"], "article_id"=>259793, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_TH_and_DAT_expression_in_SN_/259793", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on TH and DAT expression in SN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:37:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/590087"], "description"=>"<p>In sham PPARαKO animals (A and E), myelin structure was clearly stained by Luxol fast. At 8 days after MPTP injection in PPARαWT mice (B and E), a significant loss of myelin was observed. Myelin degradation was further progressed in PPARαKO mice and myelin negative area was defined in SN (C and E). The treatment with PEA significantly restored in PPARαWT the myelin presence (D and E). In addition, in sham PPARαWT mice (data not shown) or sham PPARαKO mice (F) a significant presence of astrocytes exhibiting an affinity for chrome-alum hematoxylin and aldehyde fuchsin was observed in the SN as well as in the vessels. On the contrary, a significant alteration of the Gomori positive localization was observed in the SN from MPTP-injected PPARαWT mice (G). A more alteration of Gomori positive localization was observed in MPTP injected-PPARαKO mice (H). PEA treatment reduced the alteration of the Gomori positive localization in PPARαWT mice (I).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "myelin", "granule-laden", "astrocytes"], "article_id"=>260573, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_myelin_structure_and_presence_of_granule_laden_astrocytes_Gomori_stains_/260573", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on myelin structure and presence of granule-laden astrocytes (Gomori stains).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:41:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589838"], "description"=>"<p>By Western blot analysis, Bax expression was appreciably increased in SN from PPARαWT and PPARαWT mice (panels A and A1) after intoxication. On the contrary, PEA treatment prevented the MPTP-induced Bax expression. Moreover, a basal level of Bcl-2 expression was detected in SN from PPARαKO sham-operated mice (panels B and B1). Eight days after MPTP, Bcl-2 expression was significantly reduced in SN from MPTP mice (panels B and B1). PEA significantly reduced the MPTP-induced inhibition of Bcl-2 expression (panels B and B1). The relative expression of the protein bands was standardized for densitometric analysis to β-actin levels, and reported in panel <b>a1</b> and <b>b1</b> are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. from n = 5/6 brains for each group. *<i>P</i><0.01 <i>versus</i> sham, °<i>P</i><0.01 <i>versus</i> MPTP+vehicle. No positive staining for Bax was observed in the SN tissues from PPARαKO sham-operated mice (<b>C</b>). MPTP caused an increase in Bax expression in PPARαWT (<b>D</b>) and PPARαKO mice. PEA treatment reduced the degree of positive staining for Bax in SN from PPARαWY (<b>E</b>). On the contrary, positive staining for Bcl-2 was observed in the brain from PPARαKO sham-operated mice (<b>F</b>) while the staining was reduced in MPTP PPARαWT (<b>G</b>) and significantly reduced in PPARαKO ice (<b>H</b>). PEA treatment attenuated the loss of positive staining for Bcl-2 in SN from MPTP-subjected PPARαWT mice (<b>I</b>). The assay was carried out by using Optilab Graftek software on a Macintosh personal computer (CPU G3-266). *<i>p</i><0.01 vs. Sham. °<i>p</i><0.01 vs <i>MPTP</i>+vehicle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea"], "article_id"=>260334, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_PEA_on_apoptosis_/260334", "title"=>"Effects of PEA on apoptosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:40:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589214"], "description"=>"<p>Motor function after MPTP was also assessed using a rotarod apparatus. At 8 days after the MPTP injection, PPARαWT and PPARαKO mice exhibited a significant motor dysfunction as indicated by a decrease in the time period on rotarod and by an increased numbers of falls (A and B). The absence of PPARα gene significantly increases the motor dysfunction induced by MPTP. PEA treatment blunted the motor dysfunction in PPARαWT mice but not in PPARαKO mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "assessed"], "article_id"=>259705, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_treatment_on_motor_function_assessed_by_rotarod_/259705", "title"=>"Effect of PEA treatment on motor function assessed by rotarod.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:36:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/590312"], "description"=>"<p>Western blot analysis showed a basal expression of PPAR-α in SN. MPTP injection significantly reduced the expression of this specific nuclear receptor expreesion. PEA treatment is able to restore PPAR-α espression. The relative expression of the protein band (∼55 kDa) was standardized for densitometric analysis to lamin levels, and reported in panel <b>a1</b> are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. from n = 5/6 brains for each group. ***<i>P</i><0.001 <i>versus</i> sham, <sup>#</sup><i>P</i><0.05 <i>versus</i> MPTP+vehicle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea"], "article_id"=>260810, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_PPAR_945_expression_/260810", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on PPAR-α expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:42:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589584"], "description"=>"<p>By western blot analysis a significant increase in iNOS expression was observed in MPTP-injected PPARαWT mice (panels A and A1). In PPARαKO the increased iNOS expression was more pronounced. PEA treatment significantly lowered the expression of iNOS in PPARαWT mice and PEA partially reduced iNOS expression in PPARαKO mice (panel A and A1). Similarly, a marked positive immunostaining for iNOS was found in MPTP-injected PPARαWT animals at 8 days after intoxication (C and F). The absence of PPARα gene increases the number of iNOS immunoreactive cells induced by MPTP (D and F). In PPARαWT mice PEA prevented the MPTP-induced increased expression of iNOS immunoreactive cells in the SN (E and F). Sections from PPARαKO mice (B and F) did not reveal any immunoreactivity for iNOS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "inos"], "article_id"=>260073, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_PEA_on_iNOS_expression_in_the_SN_/260073", "title"=>"Effects of PEA on iNOS expression in the SN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589947"], "description"=>"<p>In the brain tissues collected from PPARαWT at 8 days after the MPTP, neurotrophic factors expression was significantly reduced in comparison to sham animals. The treatment with PEA significantly restored in PPARαWT the brain expression of three neurotrophic factors up to that of unreated mice as well as minocycline treatment. *<i>p</i><0.05 and **<i>p</i><0.01 vs Sham; #<i>p</i><0.05 and ##<i>p</i><0.05 vs MPTP+vehicle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "ngf", "nt-3", "blot"], "article_id"=>260435, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PEA_on_GDNF_NGF_and_NT_3_expression_by_Western_blot_analysis_/260435", "title"=>"Effect of PEA on GDNF, NGF and NT-3 expression by Western blot analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:40:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589728"], "description"=>"<p>Brain sections were processed to determine the immunohistological staining for PAR, product of PARP activation. No positive staining for PAR observed in SN from PPARαKO sham-operated mice (A and E). A substantial PAR formation was found in inflammatory cells in SN from MPTP-injectd PPARαWWT and PPARαKO (B and C, respectively). PAR formation was significantly attenuated in PEA-treated MPTP PPARαWT mice (D and E). This figure is representative of at least 3 experiments performed on different experimental days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pea", "parp"], "article_id"=>260223, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Emanuela Esposito", "Daniela Impellizzeri", "Emanuela Mazzon", "Irene Paterniti", "Salvatore Cuzzocrea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041880.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_PEA_on_PARP_activation_/260223", "title"=>"Effects of PEA on PARP activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:39:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"85", "full-text"=>"101", "pdf"=>"63", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"44", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"34", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"41", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[308, 530, 649, 751, 844, 933, 1021, 1107, 1194, 1277, 1357, 1426, 1501, 1572, 1634, 1702, 1768, 1838, 1910, 1976, 2046, 2114, 2181, 2241, 2298]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[316, 541, 663, 766, 856, 950, 1041, 1128, 1218, 1302, 1382, 1456, 1526, 1593, 1657, 1729, 1796, 1862, 1930, 1999, 2065, 2132, 2202, 2261, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biotechnology", "average_usage"=>[320, 560, 691, 804, 916, 1011, 1117, 1228, 1328, 1420, 1506, 1584, 1651, 1749, 1836, 1909, 1982, 2053, 2131, 2188, 2276, 2372, 2441, 2540, 2627]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[319, 556, 679, 785, 881, 970, 1062, 1149, 1236, 1323, 1402, 1474, 1545, 1617, 1681, 1754, 1822, 1892, 1963, 2031, 2099, 2165, 2233, 2299, 2359]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[325, 542, 658, 757, 836, 925, 1015, 1095, 1177, 1263, 1338, 1411, 1477, 1537, 1599, 1663, 1726, 1795, 1857, 1921, 1979, 2041, 2099, 2150, 2205]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[307, 529, 649, 751, 845, 936, 1025, 1113, 1197, 1284, 1360, 1432, 1501, 1570, 1632, 1697, 1765, 1834, 1904, 1972, 2041, 2107, 2170, 2231, 2292]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Mental health and psychiatry", "average_usage"=>[341, 608, 746, 856, 954, 1057, 1164, 1270, 1368, 1453, 1563, 1640, 1735, 1813, 1893, 1982, 2056, 2134, 2213, 2310, 2366, 2434, 2496, 2563, 2624]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[337, 591, 725, 836, 937, 1024, 1130, 1228, 1320, 1410, 1494, 1571, 1648, 1717, 1796, 1868, 1938, 2007, 2086, 2154, 2221, 2297, 2349, 2411, 2484]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 506, 616, 712, 799, 879, 968, 1052, 1134, 1212, 1284, 1357, 1427, 1494, 1557, 1621, 1689, 1756, 1823, 1883, 1944, 1997, 2056, 2118, 2171]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[302, 508, 622, 720, 804, 888, 973, 1054, 1141, 1219, 1299, 1370, 1442, 1511, 1574, 1644, 1711, 1782, 1846, 1911, 1971, 2030, 2097, 2155, 2217]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts