The Hadal Amphipod Hirondellea gigas Possessing a Unique Cellulase for Digesting Wooden Debris Buried in the Deepest Seafloor
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The Hadal Amphipod Hirondellea gigas possessing a unique cellulase for digesting wooden debris buried in the deepest seafloor", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hideki", "last_name"=>"Kobayashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55683214500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuji", "last_name"=>"Hatada", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006241725"}, {"first_name"=>"Taishi", "last_name"=>"Tsubouchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55648702400"}, {"first_name"=>"Takahiko", "last_name"=>"Nagahama", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006475381"}, {"first_name"=>"Hideto", "last_name"=>"Takami", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202531227"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865057292", "pui"=>"365445673", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042727", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84865057292", "pmid"=>"22905166"}, "id"=>"16ab346a-43db-3b91-a457-12c6fd642246", "abstract"=>"<p>The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the ocean (10,994 m). Certain deep-sea animals can withstand the extreme pressure at this great depth. The amphipod <italic>Hirondellea gigas</italic> is a resident of the Challenger Deep. Amphipods are common inhabitants at great depths and serve as scavengers. However, there is relatively little information available regarding the physiology of <italic>H. gigas</italic> or this organism's ecological interactions in the hadopelagic zone. To understand the feeding behavior of this scavenger in the deepest oligotrophic hadal zone, we analyzed the digestive enzymes in whole-body extracts. We describe the detection of amylase, cellulase, mannanase, xylanase, and α-glycosidase activities that are capable of digesting plant-derived polysaccharides. Our identification of glucose, maltose, and cellobiose in the <italic>H</italic>. <italic>gigas</italic> extracts indicated that these enzymes function under great pressure <italic>in situ</italic>. In fact, the glucose content of <italic>H. gigas</italic> averaged 0.4% (w/dry-w). The purified <italic>H</italic>. <italic>gigas</italic> cellulase (HGcel) converted cellulose to glucose and cellobiose at an exceptional molar ratio of 2∶1 and efficiently produced glucose from dried wood, a natural cellulosic biomass, at 35°C. The enzyme activity increased under a high hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at 2°C, conditions equivalent to those found in the Challenger Deep. An analysis of the amino acid sequence of HGcel supported its classification as a family 31 glycosyl hydrolase. However, none of the enzymes of this family had previously been shown to possess cellulase activity. These results strongly suggested that <italic>H. gigas</italic> adapted to its extreme oligotrophic hadal oceanic environment by evolving digestive enzymes capable of digesting sunken wooden debris.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hadal-amphipod-hirondellea-gigas-possessing-unique-cellulase-digesting-wooden-debris-buried-deepest", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>4, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865057292"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865057292?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84865057292&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84865057292&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84865057292", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84865057292", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84865057292", "dc:title"=>"The Hadal Amphipod Hirondellea gigas possessing a unique cellulase for digesting wooden debris buried in the deepest seafloor", "dc:creator"=>"Kobayashi H.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-08-15", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"15 August 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042727", "citedby-count"=>"44", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology", "affiliation-city"=>"Yokosuka", "affiliation-country"=>"Japan"}], "pubmed-id"=>"22905166", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e42727", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true, "freetoread"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"all"}, {"$"=>"publisherfullgold"}, {"$"=>"repository"}, {"$"=>"repositoryvor"}, {"$"=>"repositoryam"}]}, "freetoreadLabel"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"All Open Access"}, {"$"=>"Gold"}, {"$"=>"Green"}]}}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0042727", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"608", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"2412"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"470"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"342"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"226"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"224"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"188"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"368"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"263"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"313"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"188"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"365"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"264"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"297"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"252"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"134"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"150"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"111"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"182"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"154"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591522"], "description"=>"<p>(per 1 µg of protein)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["digestive", "enzymatic", "activities", "whole-body"], "article_id"=>262010, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Hideki Kobayashi", "Yuji Hatada", "Taishi Tsubouchi", "Takahiko Nagahama", "Hideto Takami"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_digestive_enzymatic_activities_detected_in_H_gigas_whole_body_extracts_/262010", "title"=>"The digestive enzymatic activities detected in <i>H. gigas</i> whole-body extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:33:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591436"], "description"=>"<p>HGcel was purified from crushed <i>H</i>. <i>gigas</i> by anion-exchange column chromatography as described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> section. HGcel migrated as a single 59-kDa band on an SDS-PAGE gel (5–20% gradient) (A). The effects of pH (B) and temperature on the enzyme's activity and stability are expressed relative to their maximum respective values (C). HGcel converted cellulose to glucose (Glu) and cellobiose (C2). In these reactions, 200 mU of HGcel was added to 500 µl of 5% cellulose solutions (pH 5.6) (D). One of the 5% (w/v) cellulose suspensions was added to HGcel (+E). Another was not added and was used as a reference (R). The kinetics of the glucose production from cellulose are described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> section of this paper (E). The products of the HGcel reaction with cellobiose (C2), cellotriose (C3), cellotetraose (C4), and cellopentaose (C5) were analyzed using TLC. Addition of HGcel (12 mU) is indicated by a ‘+’. HGcel was more efficient at hydrolyzing cello-oligosaccharides larger than cellotriose (F). HGcel (12 mU) was allowed to react with <i>p</i>-nitro phenyl cello-oligosaccharides at 35°C for 1 h. <i>p</i>-nitro phenyl binds to the reducing ends of cello-oligosaccharides. The release of glucose or <i>p</i>-nitro phenol in the reactions is shown (G). The effect of hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa) on the enzymatic activity is expressed as the percentage of its activity at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) (H). The enzymatic reaction was performed using 10 mU of HGcel with 1% CMC solution in airtight plastic tubes at 2°C. The enzymatic activities were measured after 8 h and 16 h of incubation. The kinetics of sawdust digestion by HGcel were measured by determining the production of glucose in a reaction containing HGcel (380 mU) and either sawdust or CMC at 35°C (I).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "physiology", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>261927, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Hideki Kobayashi", "Yuji Hatada", "Taishi Tsubouchi", "Takahiko Nagahama", "Hideto Takami"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Purification_of_HGcel_/261927", "title"=>"Purification of HGcel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:32:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591343"], "description"=>"<p>Oligosaccharides were extracted with DDW from 3 crushed <i>H</i>. <i>gigas</i> and were separated by TLC and stained with H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> for oligosaccharides (A, left) or the Glucose CII Kit for glucose (A, right). Glucose (G), maltose (M), and maltotriose (M3) were used as standard. The maltose and cellobiose contents were measured by the increase in the glucose content after α- or β-glucosidase treatment (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oligosaccharides", "whole-body"], "article_id"=>261836, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Hideki Kobayashi", "Yuji Hatada", "Taishi Tsubouchi", "Takahiko Nagahama", "Hideto Takami"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Identification_of_oligosaccharides_in_H_gigas_whole_body_extracts_/261836", "title"=>"Identification of oligosaccharides in <i>H</i>. <i>gigas</i> whole-body extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:30:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310870", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310938", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311016", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311167", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311254", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311281"], "description"=>"<div><p>The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the ocean (10,994 m). Certain deep-sea animals can withstand the extreme pressure at this great depth. The amphipod <em>Hirondellea gigas</em> is a resident of the Challenger Deep. Amphipods are common inhabitants at great depths and serve as scavengers. However, there is relatively little information available regarding the physiology of <em>H. gigas</em> or this organism's ecological interactions in the hadopelagic zone. To understand the feeding behavior of this scavenger in the deepest oligotrophic hadal zone, we analyzed the digestive enzymes in whole-body extracts. We describe the detection of amylase, cellulase, mannanase, xylanase, and α-glycosidase activities that are capable of digesting plant-derived polysaccharides. Our identification of glucose, maltose, and cellobiose in the <em>H</em>. <em>gigas</em> extracts indicated that these enzymes function under great pressure <em>in situ</em>. In fact, the glucose content of <em>H. gigas</em> averaged 0.4% (w/dry-w). The purified <em>H</em>. <em>gigas</em> cellulase (HGcel) converted cellulose to glucose and cellobiose at an exceptional molar ratio of 2∶1 and efficiently produced glucose from dried wood, a natural cellulosic biomass, at 35°C. The enzyme activity increased under a high hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at 2°C, conditions equivalent to those found in the Challenger Deep. An analysis of the amino acid sequence of HGcel supported its classification as a family 31 glycosyl hydrolase. However, none of the enzymes of this family had previously been shown to possess cellulase activity. These results strongly suggested that <em>H. gigas</em> adapted to its extreme oligotrophic hadal oceanic environment by evolving digestive enzymes capable of digesting sunken wooden debris.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hadal", "amphipod", "possessing", "cellulase", "digesting", "buried", "deepest", "seafloor"], "article_id"=>121326, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Hideki Kobayashi", "Yuji Hatada", "Taishi Tsubouchi", "Takahiko Nagahama", "Hideto Takami"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Hadal_Amphipod_Hirondellea_gigas_Possessing_a_Unique_Cellulase_for_Digesting_Wooden_Debris_Buried_in_the_Deepest_Seafloor/121326", "title"=>"The Hadal Amphipod <em>Hirondellea gigas</em> Possessing a Unique Cellulase for Digesting Wooden Debris Buried in the Deepest Seafloor", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:22:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591236"], "description"=>"<p>We captured deep-sea animals using baited traps containing a slice of mackerel. One baited trap contained approximately 50 individuals (A). Digestive enzyme activities were assessed by halo formation in agar plates containing starch azure (amylase), CMC and trypan blue (cellulase), glucomannan (mannanase), and xylan (xylanase). The halos produced by the amylase and cellulase activities were visualized directly, while the halos resulting from mannanase and xylanase were detected after staining with 0.5% Congo red followed by washing with DDW (B). The kinetics of the reactions were determined by TLC as described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> section of this paper. Reactions with crushed <i>H</i>. <i>gigas</i> with 0.5% (w/v) starch (C), 0.2% (w/v) glucomannan (E) or 1% (w/v) CMC (D) were conducted in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.6) at 30°C. The pH dependencies of the amylase, mannanase, and cellulase activities were measured with protein extracts (F). The enzyme reactions were conducted in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.4–5.6) or 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.2–6.8). The relative activities are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["possesses", "polysaccharide", "hydrolase"], "article_id"=>261727, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Hideki Kobayashi", "Yuji Hatada", "Taishi Tsubouchi", "Takahiko Nagahama", "Hideto Takami"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042727.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_H_gigas_possesses_polysaccharide_hydrolase_activities_/261727", "title"=>"<i>H</i>. <i>gigas</i> possesses polysaccharide hydrolase activities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:28:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"960", "full-text"=>"1010", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"96", "full-text"=>"107", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"185", "full-text"=>"203", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"104", "full-text"=>"117", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[316, 541, 663, 766, 856, 950, 1041, 1128, 1218, 1302, 1382, 1456, 1526, 1593, 1657, 1729, 1796, 1862, 1930, 1999, 2065, 2132, 2202, 2261, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[324, 551, 679, 782, 879, 971, 1064, 1154, 1245, 1328, 1406, 1476, 1541, 1617, 1683, 1754, 1818, 1893, 1962, 2025, 2092, 2164, 2227, 2294, 2355]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[368, 548, 649, 749, 833, 915, 993, 1071, 1153, 1240, 1315, 1388, 1456, 1520, 1597, 1673, 1747, 1826, 1892, 1975, 2036, 2101, 2178, 2256, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[448, 650, 756, 859, 939, 1027, 1119, 1218, 1314, 1438, 1538, 1615, 1722, 1816, 1912, 1965, 2097, 2178, 2269, 2322, 2395, 2524, 2564, 2680, 2808, 2891]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[302, 508, 622, 720, 804, 888, 973, 1054, 1141, 1219, 1299, 1370, 1442, 1511, 1574, 1644, 1711, 1782, 1846, 1911, 1971, 2030, 2097, 2155, 2217]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts