Skin Color Variation in Orang Asli Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia
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{"title"=>"Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Khai C.", "last_name"=>"Ang", "scopus_author_id"=>"36024925300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mee S.", "last_name"=>"Ngu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36728199500"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine P.", "last_name"=>"Reid", "scopus_author_id"=>"55337330300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mei S.", "last_name"=>"Teh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55337450600"}, {"first_name"=>"Zamzuraida S.", "last_name"=>"Aida", "scopus_author_id"=>"55337546900"}, {"first_name"=>"Danny X.R.", "last_name"=>"Koh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55337674200"}, {"first_name"=>"Arthur", "last_name"=>"Berg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401596610"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Oppenheimer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101653217"}, {"first_name"=>"Hood", "last_name"=>"Salleh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55325203700"}, {"first_name"=>"Mahani M.", "last_name"=>"Clyde", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602782904"}, {"first_name"=>"Badrul M.", "last_name"=>"Md-Zain", "scopus_author_id"=>"8128923900"}, {"first_name"=>"Victor A.", "last_name"=>"Canfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195341997"}, {"first_name"=>"Keith C.", "last_name"=>"Cheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201532652"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865052361", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042752", "sgr"=>"84865052361", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22912732", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365445207"}, "id"=>"6173a31e-2a72-30d2-90b6-95eb7f3b38c8", "abstract"=>"Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10–20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/skin-color-variation-orang-asli-tribes-peninsular-malaysia-6", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Philippines"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311160", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/311228"], "description"=>"<div><p>Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10–20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for <em>SLC24A5</em> and <em>SLC45A2</em> in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the <em>A111T</em> mutation had significantly lighter skin (<em>p</em> = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["orang", "asli", "tribes", "peninsular", "malaysia"], "article_id"=>121374, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Skin_Color_Variation_in_Orang_Asli_Tribes_of_Peninsular_Malaysia/121374", "title"=>"Skin Color Variation in Orang Asli Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:22:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592602"], "description"=>"<p>Senoi genotype combinations for <i>SLC24A5</i> and <i>SLC45A2.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotype", "combinations"], "article_id"=>263081, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Senoi_genotype_combinations_for_SLC24A5_and_SLC45A2_/263081", "title"=>"Senoi genotype combinations for <i>SLC24A5</i> and <i>SLC45A2.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:51:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592239"], "description"=>"<p>Notably, the Negrito show the highest average M-index and the Proto Malay the lowest, while the Senoi have the broadest distribution of skin color. 40 Orang Asli samples containing either <i>SLC24A5<sup>A111T</sup></i> or <i>SLC45A2<sup>L374F</sup></i> alleles have been excluded from this plot. For plots including all individuals, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752#pone.0042752.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["orang", "asli", "homozygous", "ancestral"], "article_id"=>262723, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_M_indices_of_Orang_Asli_who_are_homozygous_ancestral_for_SLC24A5_amp_SLC45A2_/262723", "title"=>"M-indices of Orang Asli who are homozygous ancestral for <i>SLC24A5 & SLC45A2</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:45:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592547"], "description"=>"<p>Orang Asli genotype combinations for <i>SLC24A5</i> and <i>SLC45A2.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asli", "genotype", "combinations"], "article_id"=>263028, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orang_Asli_genotype_combinations_for_SLC24A5_and_SLC45A2_/263028", "title"=>"Orang Asli genotype combinations for <i>SLC24A5</i> and <i>SLC45A2.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:50:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592507"], "description"=>"*<p>Denotes subtribes sampled.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asli", "classification"], "article_id"=>262990, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orang_Asli_classification_by_tribe_and_subtribe_/262990", "title"=>"Orang Asli classification by tribe and subtribe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:49:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592330"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Senoi samples with <i>SLC24A5</i> and <i>SLC45A2</i> ancestral alleles. (B) Senoi with derived alleles for either <i>SLC24A5</i> or <i>SLC45A2</i>, or a combination of both. (C) Senoi with the derived allele of <i>SLC24A5</i>. (D) Senoi with the derived allele of <i>SLC45A2</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["m-indices", "senoi", "derived", "alleles"], "article_id"=>262812, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_M_indices_of_Senoi_with_and_without_derived_alleles_for_SLC24A5_and_SLC45A2_/262812", "title"=>"Distribution of M-indices of Senoi with and without derived alleles for <i>SLC24A5 and SLC45A2.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:46:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592435"], "description"=>"<p>A) <i>SLC24A5<sup>A111T</sup></i> showed a statistically significant effect on skin color (<i>p</i> = 0.0013) B) <i>SLC45A2<sup>L374F</sup></i> does not reach significance effect for the Orang Asli skin color (<i>p</i> = 0.37). The black line indicates the average M-index of samples with homozygous ancestral alleles, and the red line indicates the average M-index of samples with heterozygous derived alleles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dotplot", "orang", "asli"], "article_id"=>262917, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>65, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Beeswarm_dotplot_showing_the_effect_of_SLC24A5_A111T_and_SLC45A2_L374F_on_the_Orang_Asli_skin_color_/262917", "title"=>"Beeswarm dotplot showing the effect of SLC24A5<sup>A111T</sup> and <i>SLC45A2<sup>L374F</sup></i> on the Orang Asli skin color.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:48:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592144"], "description"=>"<p>For Orang Asli tribes and their corresponding village locations, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752#pone.0042752.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peninsular", "malaysia", "sampling"], "article_id"=>262620, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Developmental Biology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Khai C. Ang", "Mee S. Ngu", "Katherine P. Reid", "Mei S. Teh", "Zamzuraida S. Aida", "Danny XR. Koh", "Arthur Berg", "Stephen Oppenheimer", "Hood Salleh", "Mahani M. Clyde", "Badrul M. Md-Zain", "Victor A. Canfield", "Keith C. Cheng"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042752.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Peninsular_Malaysia_indicating_sampling_sites_/262620", "title"=>"Map of Peninsular Malaysia indicating sampling sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-13 00:43:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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