Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective
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{"title"=>"Association of Betel nut with carcinogenesis: Revisit with a clinical perspective", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rajeshwar N.", "last_name"=>"Sharan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005271153"}, {"first_name"=>"Ravi", "last_name"=>"Mehrotra", "scopus_author_id"=>"7203045563"}, {"first_name"=>"Yashmin", "last_name"=>"Choudhury", "scopus_author_id"=>"25627385400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kamlesh", "last_name"=>"Asotra", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603721902"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865060284", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042759", "sgr"=>"84865060284", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22912735", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365445205"}, "id"=>"3412c107-ae58-38d6-8b2b-94cbd5ee1aed", "abstract"=>"Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers.The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered.This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-betel-nut-carcinogenesis-revisit-clinical-perspective", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Chemistry"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>34, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>34}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Philippines"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593458"], "description"=>"<p>Genetic polymorphisms and their role(s) in betel nut (BN) and/or betel quid (BQ) associated human precancerous lesions/cancers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphisms", "betel", "quid", "precancerous"], "article_id"=>263948, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_polymorphisms_and_their_role_s_in_betel_nut_BN_and_or_betel_quid_BQ_associated_human_precancerous_lesions_cancers_/263948", "title"=>"Genetic polymorphisms and their role(s) in betel nut (BN) and/or betel quid (BQ) associated human precancerous lesions/cancers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:59:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593425"], "description"=>"<p>p53 associated alterations in betel nut (BN) and/or betel quid (BQ) associated human precancerous lesions/cancers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alterations", "betel", "quid", "precancerous"], "article_id"=>263915, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_p53_associated_alterations_in_betel_nut_BN_and_or_betel_quid_BQ_associated_human_precancerous_lesions_cancers_/263915", "title"=>"p53 associated alterations in betel nut (BN) and/or betel quid (BQ) associated human precancerous lesions/cancers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592545"], "description"=>"<p>The unripe <i>Areca</i> fruit (a), either directly or after short curing is shelled to get wet and soft BN (b) (<i>tambul</i> or <i>kwai</i>), which after cutting into 4–5 pieces (c & 1) is normally consumed with a piece of betel leaf (2) and slacked lime (3) making a simple BQ (d). The ripe <i>Areca</i> fruit (A), after drying and curing is shelled to get dry and hard nut (B), which is cut into smaller pieces (C) (<i>supari</i>) for mastication. The dry pieces of BN (4 & 12) are usually masticated with a variety of additives (5–8), all of which usually contain BN, on a betel leaf (9) supplemented with catechu (10) and slacked lime (11) in a complex BQ (D-1). A variant of the complex BQ (D-2) may include all of the above plus a variety of chewing tobacco additives (13–15). Commercialization of this widespread practice of BQ mastication has lead to mushrooming production of convenient and inexpensive alternate forms of BN preparations without (<i>paan masala</i>) or with tobacco (<i>gutkha</i>). Few of these products, packages in sachets (shown) or containers of various sizes (not shown), which are widely available in markets in India are shown here. All these products have no standardized production frame or declaration of nutritional components. See text for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["betel", "quid", "preparations"], "article_id"=>263033, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Betel_nut_BN_betel_quid_BQ_and_different_preparations_associated_with_its_mastication_including_their_commercial_reincarnations_/263033", "title"=>"Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and different preparations associated with its mastication, including their commercial reincarnations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:54:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592932"], "description"=>"<p>The simplified flow chart is intended to highlight the complexity of BN and its constituents, and how they affect different metabolic components and systems of a cell to eventually lead to carcinogenic transformation. For more details see reviews in references 2–5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["events", "bn", "induced"], "article_id"=>263434, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_flow_chart_of_main_events_of_BN_induced_carcinogenesis_/263434", "title"=>"Simplified flow chart of main events of BN induced carcinogenesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:57:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593074"], "description"=>"<p>Mastication of BN/BQ, even without tobacco, manifests itself in some preneoplastic alterations in the oral cavity of the masticator. This includes appearance of whitish patches or plaque (arrow) in the buccal mucosa, known as oral leukoplakia (OL) (A), or its variant with reddish patches/plaques, known as oral erythroplakia (OE) (B). In a third clinical manifestation, stiffening of oral mucosa leads to a clinical condition known as oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) characterized by inflammation and reduced fibro-elasticity which limits the opening of the mouth (C). Prolonged usage lead to a typical clinical manifestation known as the betel chewer's mucosa (BCM). This clinical condition is characterized by brownish-red discoloration of the oral mucosa, especially found in elderly BN chewing women (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conditions", "bn"], "article_id"=>263574, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_conditions_associated_with_BN_mastication_/263574", "title"=>"Clinical conditions associated with BN mastication.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:57:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/593313"], "description"=>"<p>Prolonged mastication of BN/BQ eventually manifest itself in development of cancerous condition in the oral cavity of the masticator. Potentially malignant lesions in the oral cavity include lichenoid lesion(s) in the cheek (arrow) close of the site of mastication (A) or even tongue (not shown). At a late stage, lichenoid lesions lead to formation of Oral lichen planus (OLP), which is a type-IV contact hypersensitive type of potentially malignant lesion seen in the oral cavity of BN chewers (arrow) (B). A patient with history of prolonged use of BN alone (without tobacco) eventually shows development of a cancerous condition clinically known as Oral squamous cell carcinoma OSCC (arrow) in his right cheek (C), which was the primary site of BN mastication.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malignant", "conditions", "bn"], "article_id"=>263809, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Mental Health", "Biotechnology", "Pharmacology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Rajeshwar N. Sharan", "Ravi Mehrotra", "Yashmin Choudhury", "Kamlesh Asotra"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042759.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Potentially_malignant_and_malignant_conditions_associated_with_BN_mastication_/263809", "title"=>"Potentially malignant and malignant conditions associated with BN mastication.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:59:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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