Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Results from the World Health Survey
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{"title"=>"Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Results from the World Health Survey", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ahmad Reza", "last_name"=>"Hosseinpoor", "scopus_author_id"=>"55969295800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucy Anne", "last_name"=>"Parker", "scopus_author_id"=>"56273266600"}, {"first_name"=>"Edouard", "last_name"=>"Tursan d'Espaignet", "scopus_author_id"=>"9734533900"}, {"first_name"=>"Somnath", "last_name"=>"Chatterji", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005241507"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365542831", "sgr"=>"84865605434", "pmid"=>"22952617", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865605434", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042843", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2f863eae-d28e-3a2d-8407-8d22c90d45d6", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVES: To assess the magnitude and pattern of socioeconomic inequality in current smoking in low and middle income countries.\\n\\nMETHODS: We used data from the World Health Survey [WHS] in 48 low-income and middle-income countries to estimate the crude prevalence of current smoking according to household wealth quintile. A Poisson regression model with a robust variance was used to generate the Relative Index of Inequality [RII] according to wealth within each of the countries studied.\\n\\nRESULTS: In males, smoking was disproportionately prevalent in the poor in the majority of countries. In numerous countries the poorest men were over 2.5 times more likely to smoke than the richest men. Socioeconomic inequality in women was more varied showing patterns of both pro-rich and pro-poor inequality. In 20 countries pro-rich relative socioeconomic inequality was statistically significant: the poorest women had a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the richest women. Conversely, in 9 countries women in the richest population groups had a statistically significant greater risk of smoking compared to the poorest groups.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Both the pattern and magnitude of relative inequality may vary greatly between countries. Prevention measures should address the specific pattern of smoking inequality observed within a population.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/socioeconomic-inequality-smoking-lowincome-middleincome-countries-results-world-health-survey", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584710"], "description"=>"<p>* Relative index of inequality according to wealth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["smoking", "socioeconomic", "inequality", "men", "48", "low-", "middle-income", "countries"], "article_id"=>255192, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor", "Lucy Anne Parker", "Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet", "Somnath Chatterji"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_smoking_versus_socioeconomic_inequality_in_smoking_in_men_from_48_low_and_middle_income_countries_World_Health_Survey_2002_8211_2004_/255192", "title"=>"Prevalence of smoking versus socioeconomic inequality in smoking in men from 48 low- and middle-income countries (World Health Survey, 2002–2004).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-29 01:26:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584871"], "description"=>"*<p>Adjustments were made for age, marital status, education, employment and rural/urban residence.</p>†<p>Adjusted RII could not be obtained due to the reduced number of smokers within some of the categories of the confounding variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inequality", "smoking", "prevalence", "women", "low-", "middle-income"], "article_id"=>255368, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor", "Lucy Anne Parker", "Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet", "Somnath Chatterji"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Socioeconomic_inequality_in_smoking_prevalence_in_women_in_low_and_middle_income_countries_data_from_the_World_Health_Survey_2002_8211_04_/255368", "title"=>"Socioeconomic inequality in smoking prevalence in women in low- and middle-income countries: data from the World Health Survey, 2002–04.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-29 01:29:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306955", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307005"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Objectives</h3><p>To assess the magnitude and pattern of socioeconomic inequality in current smoking in low and middle income countries.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>We used data from the World Health Survey [WHS] in 48 low-income and middle-income countries to estimate the crude prevalence of current smoking according to household wealth quintile. A Poisson regression model with a robust variance was used to generate the Relative Index of Inequality [RII] according to wealth within each of the countries studied.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>In males, smoking was disproportionately prevalent in the poor in the majority of countries. In numerous countries the poorest men were over 2.5 times more likely to smoke than the richest men. Socioeconomic inequality in women was more varied showing patterns of both pro-rich and pro-poor inequality. In 20 countries pro-rich relative socioeconomic inequality was statistically significant: the poorest women had a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the richest women. Conversely, in 9 countries women in the richest population groups had a statistically significant greater risk of smoking compared to the poorest groups.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>Both the pattern and magnitude of relative inequality may vary greatly between countries. Prevention measures should address the specific pattern of smoking inequality observed within a population.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["socioeconomic", "inequality", "smoking", "low-income", "middle-income", "results"], "article_id"=>120555, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor", "Lucy Anne Parker", "Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet", "Somnath Chatterji"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Socioeconomic_Inequality_in_Smoking_in_Low_Income_and_Middle_Income_Countries_Results_from_the_World_Health_Survey/120555", "title"=>"Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Results from the World Health Survey", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-29 00:09:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584916"], "description"=>"*<p>Adjustments were made for age, marital status, education, employment and rural/urban residence.</p>†<p>Adjusted RII could not be obtained due to the reduced number of smokers within some of the categories of the confounding variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inequality", "smoking", "prevalence", "men", "low-", "middle-income"], "article_id"=>255404, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor", "Lucy Anne Parker", "Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet", "Somnath Chatterji"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Socioeconomic_inequality_in_smoking_prevalence_in_men_in_low_and_middle_income_countries_data_from_the_World_Health_Survey_2002_8211_04_/255404", "title"=>"Socioeconomic inequality in smoking prevalence in men in low- and middle-income countries: data from the World Health Survey, 2002–04.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-29 01:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584797"], "description"=>"<p>* Relative index of inequality according to wealth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["smoking", "socioeconomic", "inequality", "women", "48", "low-", "middle-income", "countries"], "article_id"=>255282, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor", "Lucy Anne Parker", "Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet", "Somnath Chatterji"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042843.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_smoking_versus_socioeconomic_inequality_in_smoking_in_women_from_48_low_and_middle_income_countries_World_Health_Survey_2002_8211_2004_/255282", "title"=>"Prevalence of smoking versus socioeconomic inequality in smoking in women from 48 low- and middle-income countries (World Health Survey, 2002–2004).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-29 01:28:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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