Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model
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{"title"=>"Exploring trade-offs between fisheries and conservation of the vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus) using an Atlantis ecosystem model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hem Nalini", "last_name"=>"Morzaria-Luna", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506759470"}, {"first_name"=>"Cameron H.", "last_name"=>"Ainsworth", "scopus_author_id"=>"8728699400"}, {"first_name"=>"Isaac C.", "last_name"=>"Kaplan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201633371"}, {"first_name"=>"Phillip S.", "last_name"=>"Levin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103180891"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth A.", "last_name"=>"Fulton", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701680888"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365445666", "sgr"=>"84865057177", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22916180", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865057177", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042917", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"a0a88e2e-b273-32fc-903a-6afdd281628a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area fisheries are the chief source of economic productivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyze trade-offs between conservation of the vaquita and fisheries, using an end-to-end Atlantis ecosystem model for the Northern Gulf of California. Atlantis is a spatially-explicit model intended as a strategic tool to test alternative management strategies. We simulated increasingly restrictive fisheries regulations contained in the vaquita conservation plan: implementing progressively larger spatial management areas that exclude gillnets, shrimp driftnets and introduce a fishing gear that has no vaquita bycatch. We found that only the most extensive spatial management scenarios recovered the vaquita population above the threshold necessary to downlist the species from Critically Endangered. The scenario that excludes existing net gear from the 2008 area of vaquita distribution led to moderate decrease in net present value (US$ 42 million) relative to the best-performing scenario and a two-fold increase in the abundance of adult vaquita over the course of 30 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE Extended spatial management resulted in the highest recovery of the vaquita population. The economic cost of proposed management actions was unequally divided between fishing fleets; the loss of value from finfish gillnet fisheries was never recovered. Our analysis shows that managers will have to confront difficult trade-offs between management scenarios for vaquita conservation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/exploring-tradeoffs-between-fisheries-conservation-vaquita-porpoise-phocoena-sinus-using-atlantis-ec", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>27, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>51, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>51}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>27}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>3, "Mozambique"=>1, "French Guiana"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Norway"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592131"], "description"=>"<p>Net present value is discounted benefit over time with an alternate rate of return from bank investment (δ = 3.6%). Markers are results for initial vaquita abundance of 245 individuals and a 10% reduction in shrimp catch in the light trawl relative to the shrimp driftnet. Vertical confidence intervals are mature vaquita abundance results for initial abundance of 68 and 884 and horizontal intervals show 50% reductions in shrimp catch. Dashed line indicates 250 mature individuals, a criterion for downlisting from the Critically Endangered category of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-IUCN1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fisheries", "plotted", "mature", "vaquita", "abundance", "30"], "article_id"=>262625, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Net_present_value_of_fisheries_catch_for_each_management_scenario_plotted_against_mature_vaquita_abundance_at_the_end_of_the_30_year_simulation_/262625", "title"=>"Net present value of fisheries catch for each management scenario, plotted against mature vaquita abundance at the end of the 30 year simulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:43:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310360", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310517", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310533", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310552", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310563", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310574", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310590", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310605", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310620", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310631", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310636", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/310649"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (<em>Phocoena sinus</em>), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area fisheries are the chief source of economic productivity.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We analyze trade-offs between conservation of the vaquita and fisheries, using an end-to-end Atlantis ecosystem model for the Northern Gulf of California. Atlantis is a spatially-explicit model intended as a strategic tool to test alternative management strategies. We simulated increasingly restrictive fisheries regulations contained in the vaquita conservation plan: implementing progressively larger spatial management areas that exclude gillnets, shrimp driftnets and introduce a fishing gear that has no vaquita bycatch. We found that only the most extensive spatial management scenarios recovered the vaquita population above the threshold necessary to downlist the species from Critically Endangered. The scenario that excludes existing net gear from the 2008 area of vaquita distribution led to moderate decrease in net present value (US$ 42 million) relative to the best-performing scenario and a two-fold increase in the abundance of adult vaquita over the course of 30 years.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Extended spatial management resulted in the highest recovery of the vaquita population. The economic cost of proposed management actions was unequally divided between fishing fleets; the loss of value from finfish gillnet fisheries was never recovered. Our analysis shows that managers will have to confront difficult trade-offs between management scenarios for vaquita conservation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exploring", "trade-offs", "fisheries", "vaquita", "porpoise", "atlantis"], "article_id"=>121220, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Exploring_Trade_Offs_between_Fisheries_and_Conservation_of_the_Vaquita_Porpoise_Phocoena_sinu_s_Using_an_Atlantis_Ecosystem_Model/121220", "title"=>"Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (<em>Phocoena sinu</em>s) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:20:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591782"], "description"=>"<p>Undiscounted net benefit trajectories from 2009 to 2038 for each management scenario, considering a 10% reduction in shrimp catch for the light trawl fleet relative to the shrimp driftnet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectories", "2009", "2038", "considering", "trawl"], "article_id"=>262277, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Undiscounted_net_benefit_trajectories_from_2009_to_2038_for_each_management_scenario_considering_a_10_reduction_in_shrimp_catch_for_the_light_trawl_fleet_relative_to_the_shrimp_driftnet_/262277", "title"=>"Undiscounted net benefit trajectories from 2009 to 2038 for each management scenario, considering a 10% reduction in shrimp catch for the light trawl fleet relative to the shrimp driftnet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:37:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591628"], "description"=>"<p>Vaquita abundance as a function of absolute bycatch mortality. Each bycatch mortality point in the figure is the ratio of average catch and biomass for the last 5 years (2033–2038) of a simulation run under a specific bycatch mortality value. Solid vertical line indicates maximum sustainable bycatch mortality. Arrow indicates bycatch mortality for the No management scenario.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "equilibrium"], "article_id"=>262118, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vaquita_abundance_equilibrium_curve_/262118", "title"=>"Vaquita abundance equilibrium curve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:35:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591999"], "description"=>"<p>The tile plots shows average net benefit (value of catch minus costs) for gears (aggregated fleets) for the last five years of the 30 year simulation for each management scenario. The net benefit for each gear is scaled between the scenario with the highest and lowest value of catch.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["undiscounted", "gears"], "article_id"=>262497, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_undiscounted_net_benefit_for_gears_between_management_scenarios_/262497", "title"=>"Comparison of undiscounted net benefit for gears between management scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:41:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591375"], "description"=>"<p>Atlantis polygon geometry (blue lines), Biosphere Reserve (dark black line), vaquita refuge and core (green), extended refuge (orange) and fishing communities in the vaquita distribution area (red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gulf", "california", "atlantis"], "article_id"=>261869, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Northern_Gulf_of_California_and_Atlantis_model_extent_/261869", "title"=>"Northern Gulf of California and Atlantis model extent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:31:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592245"], "description"=>"<p>Program is open to those based in the communities of San Felipe, in the state of Baja California, and in Golfo de Santa Clara and Puerto Peñasco, in the state of Sonora, Mexico, that own finfish gillnet and shrimp driftnet permits. Payments and guidelines for fiscal year 2011 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-SEMARNAT2\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>.</p>‡<p>Yearly payment,</p>†<p>One-time payment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incentives", "vaquita", "small-scale", "fishers"], "article_id"=>262741, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Economic_incentives_within_the_vaquita_recovery_program_for_small_scale_fishers_and_fishing_cooperatives_/262741", "title"=>"Economic incentives within the vaquita recovery program for small-scale fishers and fishing cooperatives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:45:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591486"], "description"=>"<p>Dark lines are abundance assuming an initial vaquita population of 245 individuals <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-Gerrodette1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>. Bars are simulation results for 95% CI interval estimates for vaquita abundance, top of bars is an initial 884 vaquitas and bottom of bars is an initial 68 vaquitas. Numbers are percent change in abundance relative to 2009, considering an initial abundance of 245 vaquitas. Solid line indicates 250 mature individuals, a criterion for downlisting from the Critically Endangered category of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-IUCN1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vaquita", "abundance", "trajectories", "2009", "2038"], "article_id"=>261979, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mature_vaquita_abundance_trajectories_from_2009_to_2038_for_each_management_scenario_/261979", "title"=>"Mature vaquita abundance trajectories from 2009 to 2038 for each management scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:32:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/591676"], "description"=>"<p>Prey that compose 99% of vaquita diet are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prey"], "article_id"=>262173, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vaquita_prey_composition_for_each_management_scenario_/262173", "title"=>"Vaquita prey composition for each management scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:36:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/592284"], "description"=>"<p>We applied a range of reductions in shrimp catch in the light trawl fleet relative to the shrimp driftnet fleet (10%–50%), as shrimp catch in the light trawl will be dependent on fishers' experience and training <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-CIRVA1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917#pone.0042917-INAPESCA2\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. NPV for the No management scenario was 2.853.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["billions", "2008", "dollars", "spatial", "scenarios", "reductions"], "article_id"=>262773, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna", "Cameron H. Ainsworth", "Isaac C. Kaplan", "Phillip S. Levin", "Elizabeth A. Fulton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042917.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Net_present_value_NPV_billions_of_2008_dollars_per_year_for_spatial_management_scenarios_under_various_reductions_of_shrimp_catch_/262773", "title"=>"Net present value (NPV; billions of 2008 dollars per year) for spatial management scenarios under various reductions of shrimp catch.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-15 00:46:13"}

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