A Neonatal Model of Intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis Infection in Mice
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{"title"=>"A Neonatal Model of Intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis Infection in Mice <24 h Old Enables Characterization of Early Innate Immune Responses", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kenny D.", "last_name"=>"Kronforst", "scopus_author_id"=>"55355962800"}, {"first_name"=>"Christy J.", "last_name"=>"Mancuso", "scopus_author_id"=>"37461922500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Pettengill", "scopus_author_id"=>"16233948200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jana", "last_name"=>"Ninkovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"24341974700"}, {"first_name"=>"Melanie R.", "last_name"=>"Power Coombs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102066642"}, {"first_name"=>"Chad", "last_name"=>"Stevens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402089825"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Otto", "scopus_author_id"=>"56758333300"}, {"first_name"=>"Carina", "last_name"=>"Mallard", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003676555"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoyang", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"36066686200"}, {"first_name"=>"Donald", "last_name"=>"Goldmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"24524900500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ofer", "last_name"=>"Levy", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237805600"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866108164", "pui"=>"365624393", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0043897", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84866108164", "pmid"=>"22970147"}, "id"=>"237d261b-52c9-36bc-ae02-12b8c57998cf", "abstract"=>"Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) causes late onset sepsis and significant morbidity in catheterized preterm newborns. Animal models of SE infection are useful in characterizing disease mechanisms and are an important approach to developing improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Current murine models of neonatal bacterial infection employ intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes at several days of age, and may, therefore, not accurately reflect distinct features of innate immune responses to bacteremia. In this study we developed, validated, and characterized a murine model of intravenous (IV) infection in neonatal mice <24 hours (h) old to describe the early innate immune response to SE. C57BL/6 mice <24 h old were injected IV with 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of SE 1457, a clinical isolate from a central catheter infection. A prospective injection scoring system was developed and validated, with only high quality injections analyzed. Newborn mice were euthanized between 2 and 48 h post-injection and spleen, liver, and blood collected to assess bacterial viability, gene expression, and cytokine production. High quality IV injections demonstrated inoculum-dependent infection of spleen, liver and blood. Within 2 h of injection, SE induced selective transcription of TLR2 and MyD88 in the liver, and increased systemic production of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α. Despite clearance of bacteremia and solid organ infection within 48 h, inoculum-dependent impairment in weight gain was noted. We conclude that a model of IV SE infection in neonatal mice <24 h old is feasible, demonstrating inoculum-dependent infection of solid organs and a pattern of bacteremia, rapid and selective innate immune activation, and impairment of weight gain typical of infected human neonates. This novel model can now be used to characterize immune ontogeny, evaluate infection biomarkers, and assess preventative and therapeutic modalities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neonatal-model-intravenous-staphylococcus-epidermidis-infection-mice-24-h-old-enables-characterizati", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581035"], "description"=>"<p>Radar plot representation of Milliplex cytokine data that highlights the fold change in cytokine induction demonstrating up-regulation of both IL-6 and TNF-α in mice injected with 10<sup>8</sup> CFU of SE at 2 h. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> represent 3 independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induced", "systemic", "cytokine"], "article_id"=>251518, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_induced_systemic_cytokine_production_/251518", "title"=>"SE induced systemic cytokine production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:25:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581208"], "description"=>"<p>Changes in liver mRNA regulation 2 h following injection with 10<sup>8</sup> SE relative to control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna", "injection", "se"], "article_id"=>251689, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_liver_mRNA_regulation_2_h_following_injection_with_10_8_SE_relative_to_control_/251689", "title"=>"Changes in liver mRNA regulation 2 h following injection with 10<sup>8</sup> SE relative to control.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:28:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580806"], "description"=>"<p>Liver samples were collected 2 h post-SE injection and analyzed for mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and MD-2. Relative fold change in mRNA transcripts, each normalized to housekeeping genes as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>, was expressed as a ratio of each transcript in the SE injected animals to that in saline-injected animals. SE induced significant inoculum-dependent increases in mRNAs encoding TLR2 and MyD88 (* p<0.05, Student t-test). By contrast, TLR4 and MD-2 were not up-regulated over saline-injected mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induces", "selective", "mrna", "tlr2"], "article_id"=>251290, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_induces_selective_mRNA_expression_of_TLR2_and_MyD88_/251290", "title"=>"SE induces selective mRNA expression of TLR2 and MyD88.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581111"], "description"=>"<p>Newborn pups were weighed at birth (birth weight = BW) and at 24 and 48 h following injection with saline or the indicated inocula of SE. There was significant impairment of weight gain noted in mice injected with 10<sup>8</sup> CFU of SE. This pattern of growth was observed at both 24 and 48 h (N = 5–13, * p<0.05, *** p<0.001, Mann-Whitney t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inoculum-dependent", "impairment", "neonatal"], "article_id"=>251591, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_inoculum_dependent_impairment_of_neonatal_weight_gain_/251591", "title"=>"SE inoculum-dependent impairment of neonatal weight gain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:26:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580570"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of time on bacterial load in A) spleen, B) liver, and C) blood following intra-jugular injection of SE at 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup>, and 10<sup>8</sup> CFU shows significant clearance of bacteria by 48 h when compared to inoculation at 2 h (N = 5–31, ** p<sub>24 h</sub><0.01, *** p<sub>24 h</sub><0.001, ++p<sub>48 h</sub><0.01, +++p<sub>48 h</sub><0.001, Mann-Whitney t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mice", "se", "48"], "article_id"=>251048, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neonatal_mice_clear_SE_infection_within_48_h_post_injection_/251048", "title"=>"Neonatal mice clear SE infection within 48 h post-injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580371"], "description"=>"<p>Newborn mice less than 24 h old were injected with 10<sup>8</sup> CFU of SE. Mice were euthanized, organs harvested, and CFUs measured. CFU data were stratified by injection score, determined as per <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897#pone-0043897-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. Prospective injection scores of 3 or higher correlated with substantially greater CFUs in mouse spleen and liver (N = 5–8, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001, Mann-Whitney t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacteremia", "proportional", "injection", "scoring"], "article_id"=>250851, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Induction_of_bacteremia_is_proportional_to_injection_scoring_criteria_/250851", "title"=>"Induction of bacteremia is proportional to injection scoring criteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:14:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306810", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306855", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307070"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> (SE) causes late onset sepsis and significant morbidity in catheterized preterm newborns. Animal models of SE infection are useful in characterizing disease mechanisms and are an important approach to developing improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Current murine models of neonatal bacterial infection employ intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes at several days of age, and may, therefore, not accurately reflect distinct features of innate immune responses to bacteremia. In this study we developed, validated, and characterized a murine model of intravenous (IV) infection in neonatal mice <24 hours (h) old to describe the early innate immune response to SE. C57BL/6 mice <24 h old were injected IV with 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup>, 10<sup>8</sup> colony-forming units (CFU) of SE 1457, a clinical isolate from a central catheter infection. A prospective injection scoring system was developed and validated, with only high quality injections analyzed. Newborn mice were euthanized between 2 and 48 h post-injection and spleen, liver, and blood collected to assess bacterial viability, gene expression, and cytokine production. High quality IV injections demonstrated inoculum-dependent infection of spleen, liver and blood. Within 2 h of injection, SE induced selective transcription of TLR2 and MyD88 in the liver, and increased systemic production of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α. Despite clearance of bacteremia and solid organ infection within 48 h, inoculum-dependent impairment in weight gain was noted. We conclude that a model of IV SE infection in neonatal mice <24 h old is feasible, demonstrating inoculum-dependent infection of solid organs and a pattern of bacteremia, rapid and selective innate immune activation, and impairment of weight gain typical of infected human neonates. This novel model can now be used to characterize immune ontogeny, evaluate infection biomarkers, and assess preventative and therapeutic modalities.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neonatal", "intravenous", "mice", "enables", "characterization", "innate", "responses"], "article_id"=>120529, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cancer", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Neonatal_Model_of_Intravenous_Staphylococcus_epidermidis_Infection_in_Mice_/120529", "title"=>"A Neonatal Model of Intravenous <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> Infection in Mice <24 h Old Enables Characterization of Early Innate Immune Responses", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:08:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580703"], "description"=>"<p>Neonatal mice were injected IV with SE at A) 10<sup>6</sup>, B) 10<sup>7</sup>, and C) 10<sup>8</sup> CFU and euthanized at 2 h. Liver tissue was harvested, RNA isolated and transcription of TLR-signaling pathway genes assessed. Log<sub>10</sub> normalized gene expression levels are shown for both saline (x-axis) and inoculum SE (y-axis) injected mice. Inoculum-dependent up-regulation of TLR-gene transcription is evident, with mRNA transcripts that are significantly up- or down-regulated shown in red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inoculum-dependent", "transcription", "tlr", "signaling", "pathway"], "article_id"=>251185, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_inoculum_dependent_transcription_of_TLR_signaling_pathway_genes_/251185", "title"=>"SE inoculum-dependent transcription of TLR signaling pathway genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:19:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580924"], "description"=>"<p>IL-6 and TNF-α were both up-regulated in response to intra-jugular injection with SE showing a high ratio of IL-6 to TNF-α at 2 h post-injection. IL-6 was induced in an inoculum-dependent manner following injection with 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup> and 10<sup>8</sup> CFUs. TNF-α was also induced, but at substantially lower concentrations, with significance only at the highest inoculum when compared to saline injections (N = 4–9, * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001, Mann-Whitney t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["systemic", "il-6"], "article_id"=>251408, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_induced_systemic_IL_6_and_TNF_945_production_/251408", "title"=>"SE-induced systemic IL-6 and TNF-α production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:23:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581255"], "description"=>"<p>Injection scoring criteria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scoring"], "article_id"=>251734, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Injection_scoring_criteria_/251734", "title"=>"Injection scoring criteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:28:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581309"], "description"=>"<p>Technique diagram for intra-jugular injection of newborn mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "intra-jugular", "injection", "newborn"], "article_id"=>251791, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Technique_diagram_for_intra_jugular_injection_of_newborn_mice_/251791", "title"=>"Technique diagram for intra-jugular injection of newborn mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580236"], "description"=>"<p>A) Depiction of murine anatomy including the ventral muscles and blood vessels of the neck, highlighting the location of the external jugular vein (image used with permission of Nature Publishing Group). B) Positioning of mouse and exposure of neck for injection into right external jugular vein. C) Insertion of needle into external jugular vein. D) Injection of inoculum into external jugular vein. E) Removal of needle showing blood return following vessel puncture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["injection", "se", "mice", "24"], "article_id"=>250710, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intrajugular_injection_of_SE_in_mice_less_than_24_h_old_/250710", "title"=>"Intrajugular injection of SE in mice less than 24 h old.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:11:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580459"], "description"=>"<p>Bacterial load in A) spleen, B) liver, and C) blood at 2 h following intra-jugular injection of SE at 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>7</sup>, and 10<sup>8</sup> CFU showing inoculum-dependent increase in bacterial counts. Graph represents individual data points with median values indicated by a horizontal line. Only mice with injection scores of 3–5 were used in analysis. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney t-test (N = 7–31, * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inoculum-dependent", "organs"], "article_id"=>250943, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kenny D. Kronforst", "Christy J. Mancuso", "Matthew Pettengill", "Jana Ninkovic", "Melanie R. Power Coombs", "Chad Stevens", "Michael Otto", "Carina Mallard", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Donald Goldmann", "Ofer Levy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043897.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SE_induced_inoculum_dependent_infection_of_solid_organs_and_blood_/250943", "title"=>"SE-induced inoculum-dependent infection of solid organs and blood.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:15:43"}

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