Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?
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{"title"=>"Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lyne", "last_name"=>"Morissette", "scopus_author_id"=>"8376783900"}, {"first_name"=>"Villy", "last_name"=>"Christensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102413844"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Pauly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007030396"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866070809", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0043966", "pui"=>"365624386", "sgr"=>"84866070809", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22970153"}, "id"=>"e5c19636-4fd7-37a8-8e02-ff655eb2c435", "abstract"=>"<p>Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven <italic>Ecopath</italic> models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL<sub>Q</sub>) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL<sub>C</sub>). Our results showed that overall TL<sub>Q</sub> was lower than TL<sub>C</sub> (2.88 <italic>versus</italic> 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/marine-mammal-impacts-exploited-ecosystems-large-scale-culling-benefit-fisheries", "reader_count"=>196, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>52, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>22, "Student > Master"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>52, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>22, "Student > Master"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>129, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>39, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>39}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>129}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "French Guiana"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Tanzania"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "Mexico"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581485"], "description"=>"<p><i>Ecopath</i> models used for analyses of marine mammals consumption.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "analyses", "mammals"], "article_id"=>251979, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecopath_models_used_for_analyses_of_marine_mammals_consumption_/251979", "title"=>"<i>Ecopath</i> models used for analyses of marine mammals consumption.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:32:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581009"], "description"=>"<p>Biomass changes simulations with (white) and without (grey) marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea (A), Gulf of St. Lawrence (B), Benguela (C), Eastern tropical Pacific (D), Gulf of Thailand (E), North Sea (F), and Strait of Georgia (G) ecosystems.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "simulations", "mammals", "bering", "gulf", "lawrence", "benguela", "pacific", "thailand", "strait", "georgia"], "article_id"=>251494, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biomass_changes_simulations_with_white_and_without_grey_marine_mammals_in_the_Eastern_Bering_Sea_A_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_B_Benguela_C_Eastern_tropical_Pacific_D_Gulf_of_Thailand_E_North_Sea_F_and_Strait_of_Georgia_G_ecosystems_/251494", "title"=>"Biomass changes simulations with (white) and without (grey) marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea (A), Gulf of St. Lawrence (B), Benguela (C), Eastern tropical Pacific (D), Gulf of Thailand (E), North Sea (F), and Strait of Georgia (G) ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:24:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580549"], "description"=>"<p>Location of the ecosystem modeled with <i>Ecopath</i> and used for this analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modeled"], "article_id"=>251049, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_the_ecosystem_modeled_with_Ecopath_and_used_for_this_analysis_/251049", "title"=>"Location of the ecosystem modeled with <i>Ecopath</i> and used for this analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:17:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581450"], "description"=>"<p>Percentages of change in biomass for commercially important trophic groups of prey, by different marine mammals groups, in the seven study ecosystems.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "commercially", "trophic", "groups", "mammals"], "article_id"=>251947, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentages_of_change_in_biomass_for_commercially_important_trophic_groups_of_prey_by_different_marine_mammals_groups_in_the_seven_study_ecosystems_/251947", "title"=>"Percentages of change in biomass for commercially important trophic groups of prey, by different marine mammals groups, in the seven study ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581521"], "description"=>"<p>The overlap index scales from 0 (no overlap) to 0.250 (identical resource). Connectance is an index of ecosystem complexity that represents the proportion of possible links between groups that are realized (links/species<sup>2</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trophic", "catches", "overlap", "indices", "mammals", "connectance"], "article_id"=>252013, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_trophic_level_of_marine_mammals_consumption_TL_Q_Mean_trophic_level_of_fisheries_catches_TL_C_primary_production_required_PPR_and_overlap_indices_j_l_for_marine_mammals_and_fisheries_and_connectance_in_our_study_areas_/252013", "title"=>"Mean trophic level of marine mammals' consumption (<i>TL<sub>Q</sub></i>), Mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (<i>TL<sub>C</sub></i>), primary production required (<i>PPR</i>), and overlap indices (α<i><sub>j,l</sub></i>) for marine mammals and fisheries, and connectance in our study areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:33:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580696"], "description"=>"<p>Food types categories defined by Pauly et al. 1998<i>a</i>): Non-marine mammal food (NM), miscellaneous fishes (MF), small pelagic fishes (SP), benthic invertebrates (BI), small squids (SS), large squids (LS), mesopelagic fishes (MP) large zooplankton (LZ), higher vertebrates (HV).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["types", "proportions", "amounts", "taken", "bering", "gulf", "lawrence", "benguela", "pacific", "thailand", "strait", "georgia"], "article_id"=>251183, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_mean_annual_catch_and_food_consumption_by_food_types_expressed_as_proportions_of_total_amounts_taken_t_km_8722_2_in_the_Eastern_Bering_Sea_A_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_B_Benguela_C_Eastern_tropical_Pacific_D_Gulf_of_Thailand_E_North_Sea_F_and_Strait_o/251183", "title"=>"Estimated mean annual catch and food consumption by food types expressed as proportions of total amounts taken (t·km<sup>−2</sup>) in the Eastern Bering Sea (A), Gulf of St. Lawrence (B), Benguela (C), Eastern tropical Pacific (D), Gulf of Thailand (E), North Sea (F), and Strait of Georgia (G) ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:19:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/580813"], "description"=>"<p>Examples for pollock and cetaceans in the Eastern Bering Sea (A) and for cod and seals in the North Sea (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["commercially", "biomass", "simulated", "eradication"], "article_id"=>251312, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_commercially_important_fish_biomass_before_grey_line_and_after_black_line_the_simulated_eradication_of_all_marine_mammals_/251312", "title"=>"Change in commercially important fish biomass before (grey line) and after (black line) the simulated eradication of all marine mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:21:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581199"], "description"=>"<p>Boxes represent the lower 25% quartile up to the higher 75% quartile, while lines represent the smallest and the largest observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "commercially", "fishes", "removing", "groups"], "article_id"=>251699, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_percentage_of_increase_in_the_biomass_of_commercially_important_fishes_when_removing_different_groups_of_marine_mammals_/251699", "title"=>"Total percentage of increase in the biomass of commercially important fishes when removing different groups of marine mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:28:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581561"], "description"=>"<p>Percentages of change in biomass for unfished trophic groups of prey, by different marine mammals groups, in the seven study ecosystems.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "unfished", "trophic", "groups", "mammals"], "article_id"=>252055, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentages_of_change_in_biomass_for_unfished_trophic_groups_of_prey_by_different_marine_mammals_groups_in_the_seven_study_ecosystems_/252055", "title"=>"Percentages of change in biomass for unfished trophic groups of prey, by different marine mammals groups, in the seven study ecosystems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:34:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305571"], "description"=>"<div><p>Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven <em>Ecopath</em> models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TL<sub>Q</sub>) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TL<sub>C</sub>). Our results showed that overall TL<sub>Q</sub> was lower than TL<sub>C</sub> (2.88 <em>versus</em> 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammal", "impacts", "exploited", "culling"], "article_id"=>120284, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Lyne Morissette", "Villy Christensen", "Daniel Pauly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043966", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Marine_Mammal_Impacts_in_Exploited_Ecosystems_Would_Large_Scale_Culling_Benefit_Fisheries_/120284", "title"=>"Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-06 00:04:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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