Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)
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{"title"=>"Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew R.", "last_name"=>"Gates", "scopus_author_id"=>"24921394600"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel O B", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"56134408700"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0044114", "sgr"=>"84867285097", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365821691", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23056177", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867285097"}, "id"=>"9046bc88-037c-3d26-a309-d4cfd779020d", "abstract"=>"Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m(-2)) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m(-2)). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m(-2)) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m(-2)). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m(-2)) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest persistence of disturbance for three years, with unclear consequences for other components of the benthic fauna.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/recovery-benthic-megafauna-anthropogenic-disturbance-hydrocarbon-drilling-380-m-depth-norwegian-sea", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>22, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>22}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "India"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562986"], "description"=>"<p>White = Background, dark grey = Visible Disturbance, light grey = Beyond Disturbance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decapod", "burrows"], "article_id"=>233485, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_density_of_decapod_burrows_177_sd_in_the_Post_3_survey_at_Morvin_/233485", "title"=>"Mean density of decapod burrows (±sd) in the Post 3 survey at Morvin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562851"], "description"=>"<p>Shown for Rarefied species richness (<i>ES<sub>(50)</sub></i>), Species evenness (<i>J</i>), Shannon-Wiener Index (<i>H′</i>), Bray Curtis similarity, total sessile organism density and total motile organism density. Unfilled circles indicate disturbed zones and filled circles indicate distance from disturbance. Dashed lines indicate zero. Error bars = standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>233351, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_Y_recovery_index_in_comparison_to_pre_drill_/233351", "title"=>"Response Y recovery index in comparison to pre-drill.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:55:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562686"], "description"=>"<p>(a) soft sediment, (b) hard substrate and (c) generalist megafauna. Background sites are shown in white, visibly disturbed areas in dark grey and areas beyond disturbance are shown in light grey. Filled circles in hard substratum chart present show the density of rocks in the transects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["megafaunal", "invertebrate"], "article_id"=>233187, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_sd_megafaunal_invertebrate_density_individuals_m_8722_2_at_Morvin_/233187", "title"=>"Mean (±sd) megafaunal invertebrate density (individuals m<sup>−2</sup>) at Morvin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:53:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562317"], "description"=>"<p>A: <i>Mycale</i> sp., B: <i>Hymedesmia</i> sp., C: <i>Alcyonium</i> sp., D: <i>Cerianthus</i> sp., E: <i>Pennatula phosphorea</i>, F: <i>Kophobelemnon stelliferum</i>, G: <i>Funiculina</i> sp., H: <i>Bolocera</i> sp., I: <i>Porania</i> sp., J: <i>Asterias rubens</i>, K: <i>Henricia</i> sp., L: <i>Echinus</i> sp., M: <i>Parastichopus tremulus</i>, N: <i>Munida</i> sp., O: <i>Lithodes</i> sp., P: <i>Geryon</i> sp., Q: <i>Molva molva</i>, R: Sebastidae, S: <i>Glyptocephalus cynologus</i>. Scale bar on images represents 50 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["megafaunal", "taxa", "observed"], "article_id"=>232814, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_the_megafaunal_taxa_observed_at_Morvin_/232814", "title"=>"Examples of the megafaunal taxa observed at Morvin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563103"], "description"=>"<p>Morvin (this study) the highest of pre and R densities are presented. Le Danois Bank, northern Spain (425–550 m depth); data from photographic study by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114#pone.0044114-Snchez1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a> augmented, if additional species were encountered, with trawl data (marked with (T); <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114#pone.0044114-Snchez2\" target=\"_blank\">[70]</a>). Porcupine Seabight, SW Ireland (150–550 m depth) data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114#pone.0044114-Rice1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a> and unpublished data (Brian Bett, NOC). West of Shetland, UK (420 to 508 m depth); data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114#pone.0044114-Jones4\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>. If species were found, but not enumerated, presence was marked with X. The final row represents the total number of taxa common to Morvin and the relevant literature study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taxon", "densities", "100", "morvin", "atlantic", "sites"], "article_id"=>233596, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_taxon_densities_numbers_100_m_8722_2_of_species_shared_between_Morvin_and_other_Atlantic_sites_at_similar_depth_/233596", "title"=>"Mean taxon densities (numbers 100 m<sup>−2</sup>) of species shared between Morvin and other Atlantic sites at similar depth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:59:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299562", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299674"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m<sup>−2</sup>) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m<sup>−2</sup>). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m<sup>−2</sup>) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m<sup>−2</sup>). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m<sup>−2</sup>) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest persistence of disturbance for three years, with unclear consequences for other components of the benthic fauna.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["benthic", "megafauna", "anthropogenic", "disturbance", "hydrocarbon", "drilling", "norwegian"], "article_id"=>119065, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Recovery_of_Benthic_Megafauna_from_Anthropogenic_Disturbance_at_a_Hydrocarbon_Drilling_Well_380_m_Depth_in_the_Norwegian_Sea_/119065", "title"=>"Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 02:31:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562632"], "description"=>"<p>Representation of the visible horizontal extent of drilling disturbance at Morvin: a) Post 1, b) Post 2, c) Post 3. The filled black circles in the centre represent well position, dark grey = complete coverage of sea bed with drill cuttings; light grey = partial coverage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disturbance"], "article_id"=>233130, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physical_disturbance_at_Morvin_/233130", "title"=>"Physical disturbance at Morvin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:52:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562098"], "description"=>"<p>The 2009 video transect survey is shown in red. Previous surveys were at the same location with 100 m video transects radiating from the well and are shown in green. The location of the Morvin field in the Norwegian Sea is shown as an inset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morvin"], "article_id"=>232599, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Morvin_survey_design_/232599", "title"=>"The Morvin survey design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:43:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563144"], "description"=>"*<p> = species that were observed but not recorded, either outside of survey area or large motile organisms intentionally excluded to prevent over estimation of abundance.</p>†<p> = higher resolution still photograph collected, otherwise only recorded from video footage. H = hard-substratum organisms, S = soft-substratum organisms, G = generalists, organisms seen on both hard and soft substrata.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["megafaunal", "taxon", "100", "observations", "drilling", "operations"], "article_id"=>233637, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_megafaunal_taxon_density_per_100_m_8722_2_from_video_observations_before_during_and_after_the_drilling_operations_at_increasing_distance_from_the_well_/233637", "title"=>"Mean megafaunal taxon density (per 100 m<sup>−2</sup>) from video observations before, during and after the drilling operations at increasing distance from the well.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 01:00:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563072"], "description"=>"<p>Figures in parentheses are standard deviation. For Post 2 samples n = 3 and for Post 3 samples n = 8.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cuttings", "graduated", "buoys", "barium", "sediment", "samples", "taken", "morvin"], "article_id"=>233558, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_depth_of_drill_cuttings_from_graduated_marker_buoys_and_Barium_concentration_and_sediment_particle_size_from_push_core_samples_taken_at_the_Morvin_site_during_the_Pre_Post_2_and_Post_3_surveys_/233558", "title"=>"Measurements of the depth of drill cuttings from graduated marker buoys and Barium concentration and sediment particle size from push core samples taken at the Morvin site during the Pre, Post 2 and Post 3 surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:59:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562538"], "description"=>"<p>The relationship between the number of rocks observed in video transects and two indices of megafaunal invertebrate species diversity for the 2006 Pre-drill video survey and 2009 Reference sites (randomly selected undisturbed locations) (left; rarefied species richness <i>ES<sub>(50)</sub></i>, right; Shannon-Weiner Index <i>H′</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heterogeneity"], "article_id"=>233046, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Habitat_heterogeneity_and_species_diversity_at_background_sites_/233046", "title"=>"Habitat heterogeneity and species diversity at background sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:50:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/562785"], "description"=>"<p>Based on Bray Curtis similarity of pooled invertebrate megafaunal density data for the disturbance zones in 2006 (Pre, Post 1 and Post 2) and 2009 (Post 3, R). For each survey the transects have been divided into Background, Visible Disturbance and Beyond Disturbance according to the coverage of the sediment by drill cuttings, notable groups are labelled. Similarity levels from cluster analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaling", "ordination", "megafaunal", "assemblages", "disturbance"], "article_id"=>233279, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Andrew R. Gates", "Daniel O. B. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044114.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multidimensional_scaling_ordination_of_megafaunal_assemblages_under_different_disturbance_conditions_/233279", "title"=>"Multidimensional scaling ordination of megafaunal assemblages under different disturbance conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 00:54:39"}

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Relative Metric

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