A Comprehensive Survey of Retracted Articles from the Scholarly Literature
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{"title"=>"A Comprehensive Survey of Retracted Articles from the Scholarly Literature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Grieneisen", "scopus_author_id"=>"36668537700"}, {"first_name"=>"Minghua", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56004320000"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0044118", "sgr"=>"84868089356", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365952124", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23115617", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868089356"}, "id"=>"6a58b36c-4836-324c-85a5-8aeebf07b909", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The number of retracted scholarly articles has risen precipitously in recent years. Past surveys of the retracted literature each limited their scope to articles in PubMed, though many retracted articles are not indexed in PubMed. To understand the scope and characteristics of retracted articles across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines, we surveyed 42 of the largest bibliographic databases for major scholarly fields and publisher websites to identify retracted articles. This study examines various trends among them.\\n\\nRESULTS: We found, 4,449 scholarly publications retracted from 1928-2011. Unlike Math, Physics, Engineering and Social Sciences, the percentages of retractions in Medicine, Life Science and Chemistry exceeded their percentages among Web of Science (WoS) records. Retractions due to alleged publishing misconduct (47%) outnumbered those due to alleged research misconduct (20%) or questionable data/interpretations (42%). This total exceeds 100% since multiple justifications were listed in some retraction notices. Retraction/WoS record ratios vary among author affiliation countries. Though widespread, only miniscule percentages of publications for individual years, countries, journals, or disciplines have been retracted. Fifteen prolific individuals accounted for more than half of all retractions due to alleged research misconduct, and strongly influenced all retraction characteristics. The number of articles retracted per year increased by a factor of 19.06 from 2001 to 2010, though excluding repeat offenders and adjusting for growth of the published literature decreases it to a factor of 11.36.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Retracted articles occur across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines. Most retracted articles do not contain flawed data; and the authors of most retracted articles have not been accused of research misconduct. Despite recent increases, the proportion of published scholarly literature affected by retraction remains very small. Articles and editorials discussing retractions, or their relation to research integrity, should always consider individual cases in these broad contexts. However, better mechanisms are still needed for raising researchers' awareness of the retracted literature in their field.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comprehensive-survey-retracted-articles-scholarly-literature", "reader_count"=>146, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>9, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>9, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Philosophy"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>9, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>14, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>18, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>18}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>14}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>9}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Malaysia"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Netherlands"=>3, "Austria"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Lithuania"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296440", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296453", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296711", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296771", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296837", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296908"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The number of retracted scholarly articles has risen precipitously in recent years. Past surveys of the retracted literature each limited their scope to articles in PubMed, though many retracted articles are not indexed in PubMed. To understand the scope and characteristics of retracted articles across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines, we surveyed 42 of the largest bibliographic databases for major scholarly fields and publisher websites to identify retracted articles. This study examines various trends among them.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>We found, 4,449 scholarly publications retracted from 1928–2011. Unlike Math, Physics, Engineering and Social Sciences, the percentages of retractions in Medicine, Life Science and Chemistry exceeded their percentages among Web of Science (WoS) records. Retractions due to alleged publishing misconduct (47%) outnumbered those due to alleged research misconduct (20%) or questionable data/interpretations (42%). This total exceeds 100% since multiple justifications were listed in some retraction notices. Retraction/WoS record ratios vary among author affiliation countries. Though widespread, only miniscule percentages of publications for individual years, countries, journals, or disciplines have been retracted. Fifteen prolific individuals accounted for more than half of all retractions due to alleged research misconduct, and strongly influenced all retraction characteristics. The number of articles retracted per year increased by a factor of 19.06 from 2001 to 2010, though excluding repeat offenders and adjusting for growth of the published literature decreases it to a factor of 11.36.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Retracted articles occur across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines. Most retracted articles do not contain flawed data; and the authors of most retracted articles have not been accused of research misconduct. Despite recent increases, the proportion of published scholarly literature affected by retraction remains very small. Articles and editorials discussing retractions, or their relation to research integrity, should always consider individual cases in these broad contexts. However, better mechanisms are still needed for raising researchers’ awareness of the retracted literature in their field.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retracted", "articles", "scholarly", "literature"], "article_id"=>118404, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Comprehensive_Survey_of_Retracted_Articles_from_the_Scholarly_Literature__/118404", "title"=>"A Comprehensive Survey of Retracted Articles from the Scholarly Literature", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 02:20:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553987"], "description"=>"<p>Of 3,490 retracted articles with a known year of retraction, 1,880 were labeled with “retracted publication” in the publication type field in the PubMed record (on 21 Sep 2011), and 1,610 were not. The prominence of retracted articles outside of PubMed has increased since 2002.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retracted"], "article_id"=>224484, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scope_of_8220_non_PubMed_8221_retracted_articles_/224484", "title"=>"Scope of “non-PubMed” retracted articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:14:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554192"], "description"=>"<p>Field assignments were based on Web of Science Categories for 1,522 of the 1,796 journals with at least one retraction. The resulting 201 WoS Categories with at least one retracted article were then combined into these 12 broad subjects. Linear regression with intercept set to 0 yields: y = 1.1029x; R<sup>2</sup> = 0.864.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retractions", "2010", "records", "12", "scholarly"], "article_id"=>224691, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_retractions_vs_percentage_of_2010_Web_of_Science_records_among_12_broad_scholarly_fields_/224691", "title"=>"Percentage of retractions vs. percentage of 2010 Web of Science records among 12 broad scholarly fields.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:18:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554344"], "description"=>"<p>Only 20% of articles were retracted due to research misconduct, while more than twice that many were retracted due to publishing misconduct. Note that 42% were retracted because of “questionable data or interpretations.” Percentages are based on the 3,631 ( = 4,232−601) notices which stated the justification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retraction", "stated", "notices", "accounted", "retracted"], "article_id"=>224842, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Justifications_for_retraction_stated_in_the_notices_consulted_which_accounted_for_4_232_retracted_articles_/224842", "title"=>"Justifications for retraction stated in the notices consulted, which accounted for 4,232 retracted articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:20:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554506"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Counts for total number of articles published (n = 4,268) or retracted (n = 2,961) for each year from 1980–2010 from dataset of 4,449 retracted articles. These values differ because an additional 508 articles have been retracted thus far in 2011, and many online-only retraction notices do not indicate retraction year. (B) Percentages of records retracted are based on numbers of records with “retracted publication” in the document type field of PubMed or “retracted article” in the title field of Web of Science divided by total number of records for each year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articles", "retracted"], "article_id"=>225002, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Yearly_distribution_of_articles_retracted_from_1980_8211_2010_/225002", "title"=>"Yearly distribution of articles retracted from 1980–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:23:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554713"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Number of articles retracted per year for EU-27, and top 5 non-EU countries. Note that China’s large spike in 2010 was mainly due to H. Zhong and T. Liu; and the EU-27 spike in 2011 is due to J. Boldt. Thus far in 2011, values for China (either red line), and EU-27 minus J. Boldt (green, dashed line) remain well below the USA values (either blue line). (B) Ratio of number of retracted articles/number of Web of Science articles for each year and geographic region. Because many retracted articles are not in Web of Science, these values are not true proportions, but allow for country comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retracted", "articles", "affiliation"], "article_id"=>225208, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Yearly_distribution_of_retracted_articles_based_on_author_affiliation_countries_/225208", "title"=>"Yearly distribution of retracted articles based on author affiliation countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:26:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554857"], "description"=>"<p>Attributes of article retraction cases analyzed in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retraction", "cases"], "article_id"=>225357, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attributes_of_article_retraction_cases_analyzed_in_this_study_/225357", "title"=>"Attributes of article retraction cases analyzed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:29:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554883"], "description"=>"1<p>Two authors, H. Zhong and T. Liu, accounted for most of the retractions from <i>Acta Crystallogr E</i>, as did Joachim Boldt for <i>Anesth Analg</i>.</p>2<p>All 49 articles from <i>Gene Express Pattern</i> were retracted due to a publisher error in which an entire issue of journal <i>Mech Dev</i> was accidentally published as <i>Gene Expr Patterns</i>. This journal was not covered in its entirety in Web of Science, so the count of 871 “records since 1980” is from PubMed.</p>3<p>17 of 25 <i>J Hazard Mater</i> retractions were authored by Pattium Chiranjeevi.</p>4<p>The count of 532 articles since 1980 is an underestimate since WoS only includes articles for volume 4 onward for this journal, and it is not covered by PubMed. This is a Korean-language journal to which we have no access, so the reason for this large percentage is not known.</p>5<p>12 of the 16 retractions for <i>Hear Res</i> were articles accidentally posted online on two different dates (2009 Oct 8 and 2010 Jan 30), indicating two isolated editorial errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["journals", "had", "15", "retracted"], "article_id"=>225377, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Twenty_two_journals_each_had_15_or_more_retracted_articles_/225377", "title"=>"Twenty-two journals each had 15 or more retracted articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:29:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554908"], "description"=>"<p>For each source, the specific query used and number of records returned during the most recent query are indicated. Field abbreviations are: KW = key word; PT = publication type; SO = source (i.e. journal) title; TI = title.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sources", "consulted", "retracted"], "article_id"=>225403, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forty_two_data_sources_were_consulted_to_locate_retracted_articles_/225403", "title"=>"Forty-two data sources were consulted to locate retracted articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:30:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554932"], "description"=>"<p>These cases distort figures for individual journals, years, countries and subdisciplines, and are distributed throughout North America, Europe and Asia. Nine of the 15 are in medical fields.</p>1<p>Excluding one 2010 retraction, the Boldt case accounts for 87 (49%) of the 176 retractions for the entire EU-27 thus far in 2011.</p>2<p>According to the IEEExplore database, this author has allegedly fabricated data in 39 publications and co-authors of 14 additional publications.</p>3<p>The 72 retractions of these two authors represent 34% of China’s 210 retractions for 2010 and 8.9% of all 811 retractions for China.</p>4<p>These four authors account for 101 (7.5%) of all 1,355 USA retractions. It is noteworthy that Dr. Schön’s retractions include 10 articles from <i>Science</i> and 7 from <i>Nature</i>.</p>5<p>These two authors account for 40 (16%) of all 263 retractions for Japan.</p>7<p>This author accounts for 19 (6.8%) of all 280 retractions for India. Despite only 19 retractions, an institutional review alleged “plagiarizing and/or falsifying more than 70 research papers” <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118#pone.0044118-Service1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a> by this author.</p>1–6,8–9,<p>Including 39 of Dr. Maxim’s articles with allegedly fabricated data, these 13 authors account for 391 (54%) of the <u>world</u> total of 725 retractions due to alleged research misconduct.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["collectively", "retractions"], "article_id"=>225433, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_top_8220_repeat_offenders_8221_are_collectively_responsible_for_52_of_the_world_8217_s_retractions_due_to_alleged_research_misconduct_/225433", "title"=>"The top “repeat offenders” are collectively responsible for 52% of the world’s retractions due to alleged research misconduct.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:30:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554962"], "description"=>"<p>The 4-year sums of WoS records represent the time frame in which most (78.6%) of the articles that are retracted in any given year were published. Thus, changes in these sums represent changes in the size of the literature involved in most of that year’s retractions.</p>1<p>Ratio is the ratio of the 2010 value to the 2001 value for each column.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offenders", "contributed", "rising", "retractions", "10"], "article_id"=>225454, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michael L. Grieneisen", "Minghua Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044118.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Repeat_offenders_and_8220_publication_inflation_8221_have_both_contributed_to_the_rising_number_of_retractions_over_the_past_10_years_/225454", "title"=>"Repeat offenders and “publication inflation” have both contributed to the rising number of retractions over the past 10 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:30:54"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"57", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"30", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"111", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"84", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"57", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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