Macroalgae Decrease Growth and Alter Microbial Community Structure of the Reef-Building Coral, Porites astreoides
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{"title"=>"Macroalgae Decrease Growth and Alter Microbial Community Structure of the Reef-Building Coral, Porites astreoides", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rebecca", "last_name"=>"Vega Thurber", "scopus_author_id"=>"23986487200"}, {"first_name"=>"Deron E.", "last_name"=>"Burkepile", "scopus_author_id"=>"8771715800"}, {"first_name"=>"Adrienne M S", "last_name"=>"Correa", "scopus_author_id"=>"26649403100"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew R.", "last_name"=>"Thurber", "scopus_author_id"=>"9248565000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew A.", "last_name"=>"Shantz", "scopus_author_id"=>"36626362000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rory", "last_name"=>"Welsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55303659600"}, {"first_name"=>"Catharine", "last_name"=>"Pritchard", "scopus_author_id"=>"55354362500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephanie", "last_name"=>"Rosales", "scopus_author_id"=>"56979143200"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84866006416", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0044246", "pui"=>"365608792", "pmid"=>"22957055", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866006416", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"7c08d658-87f4-3cca-b0e9-568202810686", "abstract"=>"With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral Porites astreoides was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of P. astreoides. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1) increases or 2) decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3) establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4) vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/macroalgae-decrease-growth-alter-microbial-community-structure-reefbuilding-coral-porites-astreoides", "reader_count"=>154, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>28, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>98, "Chemistry"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>98}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>28}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "China"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Jamaica"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581895"], "description"=>"<p>Individual TRFs were compared between control corals and corals exposed to different macroalgal species. The relative total number of TRFs changed (A), the number of relative increases and decreases in individual TRFs (B), and the combined mean change in relative TRF abundance (C) compared to control TRFs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes"], "article_id"=>252386, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_Changes_in_Individual_TRFs_/252386", "title"=>"Significant Changes in Individual TRFs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:39:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581821"], "description"=>"<p>Multidimensional ordination of Bray-Curtis similarity of microbial communities found on macroalgae (A) and on corals in competition with different macroalgal species (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["communities", "algal"], "article_id"=>252307, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microbial_communities_on_algal_thalli_/252307", "title"=>"Microbial communities on algal thalli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:38:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306188", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306261", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306322", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306397", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306447", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/306501"], "description"=>"<div><p>With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral <em>Porites astreoides</em> was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of <em>P. astreoides</em>. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1) increases or 2) decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3) establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4) vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroalgae", "microbial", "reef-building"], "article_id"=>120407, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>36, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Macroalgae_Decrease_Growth_and_Alter_Microbial_Community_Structure_of_the_Reef_Building_Coral_Porites_astreoides_/120407", "title"=>"Macroalgae Decrease Growth and Alter Microbial Community Structure of the Reef-Building Coral, <em>Porites astreoides</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:06:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581951"], "description"=>"<p>Changes in mean individual peak heights for specific TRFs for macroalgal competition treatments relative to control corals. Positive/negative values indicate an increase/decrease of a bacterial TRF on coral fragments in competition with a given macroalgal species, compared to TRFs on control corals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trfs", "changes", "trf"], "article_id"=>252443, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contribution_of_Individual_TRFs_to_Changes_in_Relative_TRF_Abundance_/252443", "title"=>"Contribution of Individual TRFs to Changes in Relative TRF Abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:40:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581756"], "description"=>"<p>The presence of individual TRFs were used to determine bacterial species richness (black bars) and CHAO 1 estimates (grey bars) were used to predict the relative number of taxa (means ± SE) in macroalgae (A) and on corals challenged with macroalgae (B). Letters represent significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) in CHAO1 estimates among sample types; richness was not found to be significantly different among samples. Differences among macroalgae are denoted by uppercase letters A-D while difference among coral-algae treatments and controls are denoted by lowercase letters w-z. *<i>Galaxaura obtusata</i> macroalgae data were not included in statistical analysis due to low replication.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacterial", "macroalgal", "coral-algal"], "article_id"=>252242, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_relative_bacterial_diversity_among_macroalgal_species_and_among_coral_algal_competition_treatments_/252242", "title"=>"Comparisons of relative bacterial diversity among macroalgal species and among coral-algal competition treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:37:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581690"], "description"=>"<p>Comparisons of growth rates (means ± SE) between corals competing with one of five macroalgal species vs. control corals. Each algal treatment in the block design had its own paired controls that had no algae. The number of controls were constant among treatments except when lost due to storm damage; in that instance the corresponding control was removed from the analysis. Statistics are from paired t-tests. <i>P</i>-values are based on Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple comparisons with the controls. * <i>p</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["treatments", "coral"], "article_id"=>252175, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Rebecca Vega Thurber", "Deron E. Burkepile", "Adrienne M. S. Correa", "Andrew R. Thurber", "Andrew A. Shantz", "Rory Welsh", "Catharine Pritchard", "Stephanie Rosales"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044246.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_treatments_on_coral_growth_/252175", "title"=>"Effects of treatments on coral growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-05 00:36:15"}

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Relative Metric

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