Phylogeny, Histology and Inferred Body Size Evolution in a New Rhabdodontid Dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary
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{"title"=>"Phylogeny, Histology and Inferred Body Size Evolution in a New Rhabdodontid Dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Attila", "last_name"=>"Osi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8367528300"}, {"first_name"=>"Edina", "last_name"=>"Prondvai", "scopus_author_id"=>"35100672300"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Butler", "scopus_author_id"=>"35236406100"}, {"first_name"=>"David B.", "last_name"=>"Weishampel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603814655"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866694033", "sgr"=>"84866694033", "pui"=>"365719387", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23028518", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0044318"}, "id"=>"a40426bf-54ed-359b-b50e-f5a51c8d4682", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaurs are characteristic elements of Late Cretaceous European vertebrate faunas and were previously collected from lower Campanian to Maastrichtian continental deposits. Phylogenetic analyses have placed rhabdodontids among basal ornithopods as the sister taxon to the clade consisting of Tenontosaurus, Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, and Iguanodon. Recent studies considered Zalmoxes, the best known representative of the clade, to be significantly smaller than closely related ornithopods such as Tenontosaurus, Camptosaurus, or Rhabdodon, and concluded that it was probably an island dwarf that inhabited the Maastrichtian Haţeg Island.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rhabdodontid remains from the Santonian of western Hungary provide evidence for a new, small-bodied form, which we assign to Mochlodon vorosi n. sp. The new species is most similar to the early Campanian M. suessi from Austria, and the close affinities of the two species is further supported by the results of a global phylogenetic analysis of ornithischian dinosaurs. Bone histological studies of representatives of all rhabdodontids indicate a similar adult body length of 1.6-1.8 m in the Hungarian and Austrian species, 2.4-2.5 m in the subadults of both Zalmoxes robustus and Z. shqiperorum and a much larger, 5-6 m adult body length in Rhabdodon. Phylogenetic mapping of femoral lengths onto the results of the phylogenetic analysis suggests a femoral length of around 340 mm as the ancestral state for Rhabdodontidae, close to the adult femoral lengths known for Zalmoxes (320-333 mm).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of body size evolution does not support the hypothesis of autapomorhic nanism for Zalmoxes. However, Rhabdodon is reconstructed as having undergone autapomorphic giantism and the reconstructed small femoral length (245 mm) of Mochlodon is consistent with a reduction in size relative to the ancestral rhabdodontid condition. Our results imply a pre-Santonian divergence between western and eastern rhabdodontid lineages within the western Tethyan archipelago.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/phylogeny-histology-inferred-body-size-evolution-new-rhabdodontid-dinosaur-late-cretaceous-hungary", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>21}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>21}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/571323"], "description"=>"<p>(Note that there are additional late Campanian to Maastrichtian localities in southern France).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["localities", "rhabdodontid", "dinosaur", "remains"], "article_id"=>241819, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_localities_of_rhabdodontid_dinosaur_remains_in_Europe_/241819", "title"=>"Main localities of rhabdodontid dinosaur remains in Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:30:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/302218", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/302268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/302288", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/302420"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaurs are characteristic elements of Late Cretaceous European vertebrate faunas and were previously collected from lower Campanian to Maastrichtian continental deposits. Phylogenetic analyses have placed rhabdodontids among basal ornithopods as the sister taxon to the clade consisting of <em>Tenontosaurus</em>, <em>Dryosaurus</em>, <em>Camptosaurus</em>, and <em>Iguanodon</em>. Recent studies considered <em>Zalmoxes</em>, the best known representative of the clade, to be significantly smaller than closely related ornithopods such as <em>Tenontosaurus</em>, <em>Camptosaurus</em>, or <em>Rhabdodon</em>, and concluded that it was probably an island dwarf that inhabited the Maastrichtian Haţeg Island.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Rhabdodontid remains from the Santonian of western Hungary provide evidence for a new, small-bodied form, which we assign to <em>Mochlodon vorosi</em> n. sp. The new species is most similar to the early Campanian <em>M. suessi</em> from Austria, and the close affinities of the two species is further supported by the results of a global phylogenetic analysis of ornithischian dinosaurs. Bone histological studies of representatives of all rhabdodontids indicate a similar adult body length of 1.6–1.8 m in the Hungarian and Austrian species, 2.4–2.5 m in the subadults of both <em>Zalmoxes robustus</em> and <em>Z</em>. <em>shqiperorum</em> and a much larger, 5–6 m adult body length in <em>Rhabdodon</em>. Phylogenetic mapping of femoral lengths onto the results of the phylogenetic analysis suggests a femoral length of around 340 mm as the ancestral state for Rhabdodontidae, close to the adult femoral lengths known for <em>Zalmoxes</em> (320–333 mm).</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our analysis of body size evolution does not support the hypothesis of autapomorhic nanism for <em>Zalmoxes</em>. However, <em>Rhabdodon</em> is reconstructed as having undergone autapomorphic giantism and the reconstructed small femoral length (245 mm) of <em>Mochlodon</em> is consistent with a reduction in size relative to the ancestral rhabdodontid condition. Our results imply a pre-Santonian divergence between western and eastern rhabdodontid lineages within the western Tethyan archipelago.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["histology", "inferred", "rhabdodontid", "dinosaur", "cretaceous", "hungary"], "article_id"=>119596, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Phylogeny_Histology_and_Inferred_Body_Size_Evolution_in_a_New_Rhabdodontid_Dinosaur_from_the_Late_Cretaceous_of_Hungary/119596", "title"=>"Phylogeny, Histology and Inferred Body Size Evolution in a New Rhabdodontid Dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 02:39:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572190"], "description"=>"<p>A, left femur (MTM V 01.225.) in lateral, B, craniaL, C, medial, D, caudal, E, proximal views; F, right tibia (MTM V 2010.127.1.) in lateral, G, caudal, H, cranial, I, proximal views. Anatomical abbreviations: atr, cranial trochanter; cc, cnemial crest; fh, femoral head; gtr, greater trochanter; his, place of histological sampling; lco, lateral condyle; mco, medial condyle; 4tr, fourth trochanter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elements", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>242682, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hindlimb_elements_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Csehb_nya_Formation_Ihark_t_western_Hungary_/242682", "title"=>"Hindlimb elements of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. from the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation, Iharkút, western Hungary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:44:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572965"], "description"=>"<p>Histological features show that both, adult (A) and juvenile (B–E) ontogenetic stages are represented in the sample. A. Diaphyseal cross section of tibia PIUW 2349/35. B–C. Diaphyseal cross section of radius PIUW 3517 with close up (C) of the outermost cortical microsturcture. D–E. Diaphyseal cross section of femur PIUW 2349/III with close up (E) of the outermost cortical microsturcture. Abbreviation: pb, primary bone. For further abbreviations see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318#pone-0044318-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections", "bones"], "article_id"=>243463, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thin_sections_of_different_long_bones_of_Mochlodon_suessi_/243463", "title"=>"Thin sections of different long bones of <i>Mochlodon suessi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:57:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573355"], "description"=>"<p>Specimens of <i>Mochlodon</i> (blue diamond), <i>Zalmoxes</i> (green square) and <i>Rhabdodon</i> (dark blue circle) are indicated at genus level. Note the single outlier datapoint of an adult <i>Rhabdodon</i> specimen (labelled with question mark) which fits the femoral length range represented by adult <i>Mochlodon</i> species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femoral", "histological", "ontogenetic", "histologically", "sampled"], "article_id"=>243846, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_femoral_length_vs_histological_ontogenetic_stage_of_all_histologically_sampled_specimens_/243846", "title"=>"Plot of femoral length vs. histological ontogenetic stage of all histologically sampled specimens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:04:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573156"], "description"=>"<p>Based on bone microstructure, adult (A–C), late juvenile (D) and juvenile (E) ontogenetic stages can be identified. A. Distal metaphyseal cross section of femur MHN AIX PV 2007.4.116. B–C. Mid-diaphyseal cross section of femur MHN AIX PV 2008.1.11 with close up (C) of the outermost cortical microsturcture. D. Proximal diaphyseal cross section of humerus Mechin coll. 472. E. Mid-diaphyseal cross section of humerus MHN AIX PV 2001.65. Abbreviations: eb, endosteal bone; pb+sb, primary bone invaded by secondary osteons. For further abbreviations see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318#pone-0044318-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318#pone-0044318-g011\" target=\"_blank\">11</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections", "bones"], "article_id"=>243651, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thin_sections_of_limb_bones_of_Rhabdodon_sp_/243651", "title"=>"Thin sections of limb bones of <i>Rhabdodon</i> sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:00:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573591"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of histology-based adult body sizes of <i>Mochlodon</i>, <i>Zalmoxes</i> and <i>Rhabdodon</i> represented by the silhouettes of the animals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["histology-based", "sizes", "represented", "silhouettes"], "article_id"=>244081, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_histology_based_adult_body_sizes_of_Mochlodon_Zalmoxes_and_Rhabdodon_represented_by_the_silhouettes_of_the_animals_/244081", "title"=>"Comparison of histology-based adult body sizes of <i>Mochlodon</i>, <i>Zalmoxes</i> and <i>Rhabdodon</i> represented by the silhouettes of the animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/571842"], "description"=>"<p>A, cervical vertebra (MTM 2012.19.1) in cranial, B, lateral views; C, dorsal vertebra (MTM 2010.118.1.) in lateral, D, cranial, E, ventral, F, dorsal views; G, sacrum (MTM 2010.118.1.) in left lateral, H, ventral, I, dorsal, J, cranial views. K, caudal vertebral centrum (MTM 2012.20.1) in ?proximal, L, lateral, M, ventral views; N, caudal vertebral centrum (MTM 2012.21.1) in ?proximal, O, lateral, P, ventral views. Anatomical abbreviations: d, diapophysis; nar, neural arch; p, parapophysis; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis sd, sacrodorsal vertebra; sr, sacral rib; sy, sacral yoke.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cretaceous"], "article_id"=>242338, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vertebrae_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Csehb_nya_Formation_Ihark_t_western_Hungary_/242338", "title"=>"Vertebrae of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. from the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation, Iharkút, western Hungary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:38:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573810"], "description"=>"<p>List of sampled elements of different rhabdodontid dinosaur species used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampled", "elements", "rhabdodontid", "dinosaur"], "article_id"=>244303, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_sampled_elements_of_different_rhabdodontid_dinosaur_species_used_in_this_study_/244303", "title"=>"List of sampled elements of different rhabdodontid dinosaur species used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:11:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573838"], "description"=>"<p>List of maximum femoral lengths of different ornithopods used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femoral", "lengths", "ornithopods"], "article_id"=>244336, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_maximum_femoral_lengths_of_different_ornithopods_used_in_this_study_/244336", "title"=>"List of maximum femoral lengths of different ornithopods used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:12:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573422"], "description"=>"<p>Black circles represent body size (based upon femoral length) of terminal taxa, whereas grey circles indicate reconstructed ancestral body sizes. Within the clade Rhabdodontidae two values for femoral length are reconstructed at each ancestral node: values in bold were calculated using the topology shown here, whereas non-bold values were reconstructed using a topology in which <i>Rhabdodon</i> was split into giant and small species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "non-hadrosauriform"], "article_id"=>243918, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_reconstruction_of_body_size_evolution_among_non_hadrosauriform_ornithopods_/243918", "title"=>"Quantitative reconstruction of body size evolution among non-hadrosauriform ornithopods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:05:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572301"], "description"=>"<p>Bootstrap values are shown above branches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reduced", "ornithischian", "interrelationships", "reanalysis", "dataset", "han", "et"], "article_id"=>242795, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strict_reduced_consensus_tree_of_ornithischian_interrelationships_based_upon_the_reanalysis_of_the_dataset_of_Han_et_al_39_/242795", "title"=>"Strict reduced consensus tree of ornithischian interrelationships based upon the reanalysis of the dataset of Han et al. [<b>39</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:46:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/571593"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Rhabdodon</i> sp. (MC 443) in lateral, B, medial views; C, <i>Zalmoxes robustus</i> (NHMUK R4912) in lateral, D, medial views; E, <i>Mochlodon suessi</i> (PIUW 2349/2) in lateral, F, medial views; G, <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. (MTM V 2010.105.1) in lateral, H, medial views; I, Smallest dentary of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. (MTM V 2010.109.1) in lateral, J, medial views. Anatomical abbreviation: sy, smyphysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhabdodontid"], "article_id"=>242090, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_rhabdodontid_dentaries_/242090", "title"=>"Comparison of rhabdodontid dentaries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:34:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572477"], "description"=>"<p>A–B. Diaphyseal cross section (A), and longitudinal section of the proximal epiphysis (B) of humerus (MTM 2012.23.1). C–D. Diaphyseal cross section of femur MTM V 01.225. E–F. Diaphyseal cross section of tibia MTM V 01.101. Abbreviations: as, articular surface; cc, hypertrophied calcified cartilage; ecl, endosteal circumferential lamellae; EFS, external fundamental system; et, endosteal trabecular bone; LAG, lines of arrested growth; mc, medullar cavity; ol, osteocyte lacunae; ps, periosteal surface; pvc, primary vascular canal; sb, secondary bone; so, secondary osteon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections", "bones", "exhibiting", "microstructural"], "article_id"=>242967, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thin_sections_of_various_limb_bones_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_exhibiting_adult_microstructural_features_/242967", "title"=>"Thin sections of various limb bones of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> exhibiting adult microstructural features.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:49:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572714"], "description"=>"<p>A–B. Diaphyseal cross section of femur MTM V 2010.126.1. exhibiting subadult histology. C–D. Diaphyseal cross section of femur (MTM 2012.25.1) showing late juvenile microstructural features. E–F. Diaphyseal cross section of tibia (MTM 2012.26.1). Abbreviations: er, erosion room; oEFS, onset of an EFS; Shf, Sharpey's fibres. For further abbreviations see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318#pone-0044318-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections", "elements"], "article_id"=>243212, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thin_sections_of_various_limb_elements_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_/243212", "title"=>"Thin sections of various limb elements of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/571450"], "description"=>"<p>A, right quadrate (MTM V 2010.111.1) in cranial, B, caudal, C, lateral, D, medial, E, distal views; F, left dentale (MTM V 2010.105.1) in lateral, G, medial, H, occlusal views; I, left postorbital (MTM 2012.14.1) in dorsal, J, ventral, K, lateral views. Anatomical abbreviations: anf, articular surface for angular; cof, articular surface for coronoid; cop, coronoid process; ded, dorsal edg of the dentary; dep, depression; fo, foramen; gr, groove; jpr, jugal process; ltfm, margin of lateral temporal fenestra; orm, orbital rim; ptp, pterygoid process; qco, quadrate condyles; qh, quadrate head; qjs, articular surface for quadratojugal; sqpr, squamosal process; sqs, articular surface for squamosal; stfm, margin of supratemporal fenestra; surf, articular surface for surangular; sy, symphysis; to, tooth; 10th, 10th alveolus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["remains", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>241942, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cranial_remains_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Csehb_nya_Formation_Ihark_t_western_Hungary_/241942", "title"=>"Cranial remains of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. from the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation, Iharkút, western Hungary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:32:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/571734"], "description"=>"<p>A, dentary tooth (MTM 2012.18.1) in lingual, B, labial views, C, details of the labially positioned wear facet. D, maxillary tooth (MTM 2012.17.1) in labial, E, lingual views; F, strongly worn maxillary tooth (MTM 2012.17.1) in labial, G, ?mesial views. Anatomical abbreviations: cr, crenelated ridge; de, dentine, dm, denticulated margin; en, enamel; lr, longitudinal ridge; rgr, groove to accomodate the margin of crown of replacement tooth; pr, primary ridge; sc, scratch; sr, secondary ridge; wf, wear facet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cretaceous"], "article_id"=>242231, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Teeth_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Csehb_nya_Formation_Ihark_t_western_Hungary_/242231", "title"=>"Teeth of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. from the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation, Iharkút, western Hungary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:37:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573678"], "description"=>"<p>Plesiomorphic body size (302–340 mm femur length, black line) and presumed phyletic and/or autapomorphic giantism (blue line) and/or nanism (red line) are indicated on the branches of the tree with special focus on the clade Rhabdodontidae. The tree on the left arbitrarily infers phyletic giantism from the branch of <i>Talenkauen</i> on, thus on the ghost-line leading to Rhabdodontidae too. In this case, only <i>Rhabdodon</i> follows this trend, whereas for all other members of the clade (<i>Zalmoxes</i> and <i>Mochlodon</i> species) phyletic or autapomorphic nanism must be presumed. In contrast, the tree on the right demonstrates that the ancestral condition is retained throughout the whole clade except for <i>Rhabdodon</i>, which has undergone autapomorhic giantism. With respect to the clade Rhabdodontidae, the latter interpretation gained more support by our numerical analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretations", "basal", "ornithopods"], "article_id"=>244166, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contrasting_two_of_the_numerous_possible_interpretations_on_body_size_evolution_in_basal_ornithopods_from_Orodromeus_up_to_Camptosaurus_/244166", "title"=>"Contrasting two of the numerous possible interpretations on body size evolution in basal ornithopods from <i>Orodromeus</i> up to <i>Camptosaurus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 01:09:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572014"], "description"=>"<p>A, left coracoid (MTM V 01.53.) in lateral, B, medial, C, caudal views; D, left scapula (MTM 2012.22.1) in lateral, E, ventral, F, medial views; G, right humerus (MTM V 2010.128.1.) in proximal, H, caudal, I, lateral, J, cranial, K, medial views; L, right ulna (MTM 2012.24.1) in cranial, M, lateral, N, medial, O, proximal views. Anatomical abbreviations: acr, acromion process; cofo, coracoid foramen; dpc, deltopectoral crest; gl, glenoid; hc, humeral condyle; ole, olecranon process; rac, radial condyle; rf, facet for radius; scb, scapular blade; stfa, articular surface for sternum; ulc, ulnar condyle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["girdle", "forelimb", "elements", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>242502, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Attila Ősi", "Edina Prondvai", "Richard Butler", "David B. Weishampel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044318.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pectoral_girdle_and_forelimb_elements_of_Mochlodon_vorosi_n_sp_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_Csehb_nya_Formation_Ihark_t_western_Hungary_/242502", "title"=>"Pectoral girdle and forelimb elements of <i>Mochlodon vorosi</i> n. sp. from the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation, Iharkút, western Hungary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-21 00:41:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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