Extreme Reproduction and Survival of a True Cliffhanger: The Endangered Plant Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)
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{"title"=>"Extreme Reproduction and Survival of a True Cliffhanger: The Endangered Plant Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"María B.", "last_name"=>"García", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404278404"}, {"first_name"=>"Xavier", "last_name"=>"Espadaler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003932926"}, {"first_name"=>"Jens M.", "last_name"=>"Olesen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202911635"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365652609", "sgr"=>"84866327600", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22984539", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866327600", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0044657"}, "id"=>"3553a57c-6e76-3516-9df6-c6ace707cb7b", "abstract"=>"Cliff sides are extreme habitats, often sheltering a rich and unique flora. One example is the dioecious herb Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae), which is a Tertiary, tropical relict, occurring only on two adjacent vertical cliffs in the world. We studied its reproductive biology, which in some aspects is extreme, especially the unusual double mutualistic role of ants as both pollinators and dispersers. We made a 2-year pollination census and four years of seed-dispersal experiments, recording flower visitors and dispersal rates. Fruit and seed set, self-sowing of seeds, seedling recruitment, and fate of seedlings from seeds sowed by different agents were scored over a period of 17 years. The ants Lasius grandis and L. cinereus were the main pollinators, whereas another ant Pheidole pallidula dispersed seeds. Thus ants functioned as double mutualists. Two thirds of all new seedlings came from self-sown seeds, and 1/3 was dispersed by ants, which gathered the seeds with their oil-rich elaiosome. Gravity played a minor role to dispersal. Both ant dispersal and self-sowing resulted in the same survival rate of seedlings. A double mutualism is a risky reproductive strategy, but B. chouardii buffers that by an unusual long-term demographic stability (some individuals exceed 300 years in lifespan) and its presence in a climatically very stable habitat, inaccessible to large herbivores. Such a combination of traits and habitat properties may explain the persistence of this relict species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extreme-reproduction-survival-true-cliffhanger-endangered-plant-borderea-chouardii-dioscoreaceae", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "Costa Rica"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577957"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Topography of the habitat (Sopeira, Spanish Pyrenees), (B) flowering male plant, (C) flowering female plant with a visiting ant (<i>Lasius</i>), (D) male flowers with a visiting ant (<i>Lasius</i>), (E) female plant with two fruits, one at a crevice in the cliff wall (self sowing), (F) seed with elaiosome coating, (G) vial containing seeds <i>in situ</i>–for cafeteria experiments (Experiment I, see Materials and Methods), (H) ant removing a seed (Experiment I), and (I) tuber with old leaf scars marked with a red coloration, each dot corresponds to one year, and a ruler shows its size in mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction"], "article_id"=>248442, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Borderea_chouardii_/248442", "title"=>"<i>Borderea chouardii</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:27:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578279"], "description"=>"<p>Categories are seeds with elaiosome (2008, 2009, 2011), seeds without elaiosome (2009), individual elaiosomes (2009) and entire open fruits containing 6 seeds (2010).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction", "kinds", "items", "cafeteria"], "article_id"=>248762, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Removal_of_different_kinds_of_seed_items_of_Borderea_chouardii_from_in_situ_cafeteria_experiments_/248762", "title"=>"Removal of different kinds of seed items of <i>Borderea chouardii</i> from <i>in situ</i> cafeteria experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578132"], "description"=>"<p>Dispersal by gravity (G) is assumed to take place within a circular section of 45° below a mother and >10 cm away from the mother. Dispersal by ants (A) takes place in all directions and >10 cm away from the mother, and self–sowing (S) is restricted to a circular area of a radius of 10 cm and the mother plant as its center.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction", "modes"], "article_id"=>248615, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seed_dispersal_modes_of_Borderea_chouardii_/248615", "title"=>"Seed–dispersal modes of <i>Borderea chouardii</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:28:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578508"], "description"=>"<p>Flower visitation of <i>Borderea chouardii.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction", "visitation"], "article_id"=>248997, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flower_visitation_of_Borderea_chouardii_/248997", "title"=>"Flower visitation of <i>Borderea chouardii.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:30:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578429"], "description"=>"<p>Bch = <i>Borderea chouardii</i>, Bp = <i>Borderea pyrenaica</i>, Se = <i>Sarcocapnos enneaphylla</i>, and Sa = <i>Silene acaulis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction", "nests", "ant"], "article_id"=>248915, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_seed_removal_of_four_plant_species_in_natural_nests_of_the_ant_Pheidole_pallidula_/248915", "title"=>"Frequency of seed removal of four plant species in natural nests of the ant <i>Pheidole pallidula</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:29:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578201"], "description"=>"<p>Reproductive success was estimated as fruit set of individual plants (blue dots; percentage of fruits to flowers) and seed set (red squares; percentage of seeds to ovules).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Autecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Evolutionary ecology", "Population ecology", "Species extinction", "17"], "article_id"=>248690, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["María B. García", "Xavier Espadaler", "Jens M. Olesen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044657.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reproductive_success_of_Borderea_chouardii_over_17_years_/248690", "title"=>"Reproductive success of <i>Borderea chouardii</i> over 17 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:28:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[350, 552, 657, 754, 839, 932, 1023, 1103, 1197, 1274, 1359, 1436, 1499, 1564, 1640, 1726, 1794, 1865, 1933, 2021, 2101, 2181, 2239, 2324, 2376]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[368, 548, 649, 749, 833, 915, 993, 1071, 1153, 1240, 1315, 1388, 1456, 1520, 1597, 1673, 1747, 1826, 1892, 1975, 2036, 2101, 2178, 2256, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[348, 541, 638, 730, 827, 907, 993, 1074, 1152, 1232, 1310, 1379, 1442, 1507, 1576, 1648, 1715, 1786, 1854, 1926, 1991, 2059, 2125, 2181, 2249]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[347, 547, 641, 742, 836, 927, 1016, 1099, 1184, 1267, 1348, 1418, 1484, 1555, 1631, 1705, 1788, 1843, 1917, 1985, 2052, 2115, 2190, 2258, 2333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[355, 533, 627, 707, 778, 856, 928, 1005, 1080, 1162, 1245, 1303, 1378, 1445, 1504, 1573, 1659, 1717, 1797, 1846, 1928, 1994, 2063, 2137, 2206]}]}
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