The Diversity and Biogeography of Western Indian Ocean Reef-Building Corals
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{"title"=>"The Diversity and Biogeography of Western Indian Ocean Reef-Building Corals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Obura", "scopus_author_id"=>"55932162400"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365690662", "sgr"=>"84866535514", "pmid"=>"23028737", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866535514", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045013", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"0eeca1cb-1964-396c-8b78-2d7520da41c4", "abstract"=>"This study assesses the biogeographic classification of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) on the basis of the species diversity and distribution of reef-building corals. Twenty one locations were sampled between 2002 and 2011. Presence/absence of scleractinian corals was noted on SCUBA, with the aid of underwater digital photographs and reference publications for species identification. Sampling effort varied from 7 to 37 samples per location, with 15 to 45 minutes per dive allocated to species observations, depending on the logistics on each trip. Species presence/absence was analyzed using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient, followed by cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling. Total (asymptotic) species number per location was estimated using the Michaelis-Menten equation. Three hundred and sixty nine coral species were named with stable identifications and used for analysis. At the location level, estimated maximum species richness ranged from 297 (Nacala, Mozambique) to 174 (Farquhar, Seychelles). Locations in the northern Mozambique Channel had the highest diversity and similarity, forming a core region defined by its unique oceanography of variable meso-scale eddies that confer high connectivity within this region. A distinction between mainland and island fauna was not found; instead, diversity decreased radially from the northern Mozambique Channel. The Chagos archipelago was closely related to the northern Mozambique Channel region, and analysis of hard coral data in the IUCN Red List found Chagos to be more closely related to the WIO than to the Maldives, India and Sri Lanka. Diversity patterns were consistent with primary oceanographic drivers in the WIO, reflecting inflow of the South Equatorial Current, maintenance of high diversity in the northern Mozambique Channel, and export from this central region to the north and south, and to the Seychelles and Mascarene islands.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/diversity-biogeography-western-indian-ocean-reefbuilding-corals", "reader_count"=>156, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>45, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>45, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>33, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>93, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>93}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>33}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Reunion"=>1, "Ecuador"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Tanzania"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Madagascar"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Mozambique"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574244"], "description"=>"<p>The graph shows Smax, derived from the Michaelis-Menten regression equation on presence/absence from a pool of 369 coral species across all locations, and the number of species sampled. Symbols against the x axis correspond to the significant cluster symbols from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g005\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "reef-building", "corals", "locations", "indian", "ordered", "decreasing"], "article_id"=>244736, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_maximum_species_richness_of_reef_building_corals_at_survey_locations_in_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_ordered_by_decreasing_diversity_/244736", "title"=>"Estimated maximum species richness of reef-building corals at survey locations in the Western Indian Ocean, ordered by decreasing diversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:07:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574501"], "description"=>"<p>Survey details are shown for the reef-building coral dataset presented in this study, (columns from left to right): country, location and number (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2a</a>), MEOW ecoregion (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2</a> caption for ecoregion codes <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Spalding1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>), year(s) of sampling, number of dive samples (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> for details), coral species richness and geographic coordinates. Detailed results are shown for species richness, including the number of species sampled, and coefficients of the Michaelis-Menten equation based on the species accumulation curves: Smax = asymptotic number of species (expected maximum richness), and B = number of locations at which Smax/2 is predicted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locations", "indian"], "article_id"=>245008, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survey_locations_in_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_/245008", "title"=>"Survey locations in the Western Indian Ocean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:08:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574479"], "description"=>"<p>Reported distributions, in columns, are derived from the literature for western, northern and ocean-wide distributions <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Veron1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Veron2\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Wallace1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>. Sampled distributions, in rows, are as recorded in this study. The number of species in each table cell is shown in parentheses, with marginal totals, and percent of the total species number of 369.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampled", "distributions", "coral", "restricted", "indian"], "article_id"=>244972, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reported_and_sampled_distributions_of_coral_species_restricted_to_the_Indian_Ocean_/244972", "title"=>"Reported and sampled distributions of coral species restricted to the Indian Ocean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:08:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574181"], "description"=>"<p>The outliers were excluded to more clearly represent relationships among the more highly related locations. Significant groups of locations (ANOSIM R = 0.837, p<0.001) coded as Northern Mozambique Channel (NMC), Northern Mozambique Channel group b (NMCb), islands in the northern Mozambique Channel and western Seychelles (Isl) and Northern Monsoon current (Mons). Similarity contours are shown at 75, 80 and 85% similarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaling", "bi-plot", "locations", "indian", "excluding", "outliers", "djibouti", "reunion"], "article_id"=>244669, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>93, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multi_dimensional_scaling_MDS_bi_plot_of_locations_in_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_excluding_the_outliers_from_Djibouti_to_Reunion_island_from_fig_4_/244669", "title"=>"Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) bi-plot of locations in the Western Indian Ocean excluding the outliers from Djibouti to Reunion island (from <b>fig. 4</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:06:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574119"], "description"=>"<p>Study locations are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> and coded by MEOW ecoregion. Significant clusters are joined by thin red lines (ANOSIM R = 0.837, p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "locations", "indian"], "article_id"=>244615, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_analysis_of_coral_species_presence_absence_for_study_locations_in_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_/244615", "title"=>"Cluster analysis of coral species presence/absence for study locations in the Western Indian Ocean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:06:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574021"], "description"=>"<p>a) All provinces in the tropical Indo-Pacific coded by Realm, and b) ecoregions within the West Indo-Pacific Realm, excluding the Andaman Seas, coded by province (see caption to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2</a> for full province names). Significant groupings shown as thin red lines: a) ANOSIM, R = 0.609, p<0.001; b) ANOSIM R = 0.917, p<0.01; Primer v 6.0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "iucn", "threatened", "meow", "provinces"], "article_id"=>244514, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_analysis_of_coral_species_from_the_IUCN_Red_List_of_Threatened_species_by_MEOW_provinces_and_ecoregions_/244514", "title"=>"Cluster analysis of coral species from the IUCN Red List of Threatened species by MEOW provinces and ecoregions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:06:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574323"], "description"=>"<p>Reported species richness is from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Sheppard2\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a> and estimated asymptotic number of species (Smax) is from this study. Maximum Smax is shown where there were multiple locations from this study corresponding to areas in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Sheppard2\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "richness", "areas", "indian", "sheppard"], "article_id"=>244815, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_coral_species_richness_for_areas_in_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_between_this_study_and_Sheppard_18_/244815", "title"=>"Comparison of coral species richness for areas in the Western Indian Ocean, between this study and Sheppard [<b>18</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:07:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574448"], "description"=>"<p>Sources of evidence for the biogeographic patterns are listed in the table, and discussed in the text. See main text for references relevant to oceanographic features. Letter codes for each current correspond to letters in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2a</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["currents", "indian", "relevance", "consequences", "biogeography", "reef", "coral"], "article_id"=>244944, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principle_currents_of_the_Western_Indian_Ocean_their_relevance_and_consequences_for_the_biogeography_of_the_reef_building_coral_fauna_/244944", "title"=>"Principle currents of the Western Indian Ocean, their relevance and consequences for the biogeography of the reef building coral fauna.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:08:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573800"], "description"=>"<p>The principal currents that define the region are coded by the circled letters A–E (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Bathymetric contours were selected to illustrate the main plateau and bank features, at 60, 200 and 1000 m depth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["indian", "defined", "african", "saya", "de", "nazareth", "cargados", "carajos", "banks", "mascarene"], "article_id"=>244285, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>130, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Western_Indian_Ocean_defined_by_the_East_African_coast_and_the_Saya_de_Malha_Nazareth_and_Cargados_Carajos_banks_of_the_Mascarene_Plateau_/244285", "title"=>"The Western Indian Ocean, defined by the East African coast and the Saya de Malha, Nazareth and Cargados Carajos banks of the Mascarene Plateau.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:04:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574414"], "description"=>"<p>Province and ecoregion names and numbers follow the MEOW classification <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Spalding1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a> (see caption to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2</a>), while the suggested changes are illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 2b</a>. Findings are labeled by whether they are primary (supported by data from the field or the IUCN Red List (RL), along with statistical analysis) or secondary, inferred from primary findings of this study and listed sources. Both levels of findings pose hypotheses for further research and confirmation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "ecoregion", "classifications", "indo-west", "pacific", "reef-building"], "article_id"=>244907, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_changes_to_province_ecoregion_and_Large_Marine_Ecosystem_classifications_in_the_Indo_West_Pacific_Realm_based_on_reef_building_corals_/244907", "title"=>"Proposed changes to province, ecoregion and Large Marine Ecosystem classifications in the Indo-West Pacific Realm, based on reef-building corals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:08:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574382"], "description"=>"<p><i>Sobs</i> - Curve of observed species counts; <i>Chao 1</i> - Chao's estimator based on number of rare species; <i>Chao 2</i> - Chao's estimator using just presence-absence data; <i>Jacknife 1</i> - Jacknife estimator based on species that only occur in one sample; <i>Jacknife 2</i> - Second order jacknife estimator; <i>Bootstrap</i> - Bootstrap estimator based on proportion of quadrats containing each species; <i>UGE</i> - Calculated species accumulation curve; <i>Michaelis-Menten</i> - MM are points on the curve fitted to Sobs, with curve parameter Smax = asymptote at infinity <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Clarke1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Budd1\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Clarke3\" target=\"_blank\">[92]</a>.</p><p>Notes:</p>*<p>The only condition for including a sample in these subsamples was that for cases of <15 samples, only full-diversity samples were selected by excluding minor samples in which <40 coral species were recorded overall (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> for cases where sampling of species was constrained by other objectives during a dive, so records were taken only of new species seen in that dive).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimators", "applied", "ne", "Madagascar", "samples", "30", "36"], "article_id"=>244875, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximum_diversity_species_richness_estimators_applied_to_the_NE_Madagascar_surveys_based_on_random_samples_of_6_7_8_10_12_15_20_25_30_and_36_samples_/244875", "title"=>"Maximum diversity (species richness) estimators applied to the NE Madagascar surveys, based on random samples of 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 36 samples<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:08:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/573906"], "description"=>"<p>a) Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone.0045013-Spalding1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a> provinces and ecoregions (abbreviations and numbers in circles), and sample locations (numbers, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>). MEOW province and ecoregion codes (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-g004\" target=\"_blank\">fig. 4</a>): <i>Province - Red Sea/Gulf of Aden (RSGA</i>): ecoregions - North Central Red Sea (87), Southern Red Sea (88), Gulf of Aden (89, GA); <i>Province - Somali-Arabian Seas (SAS)</i>: ecoregions - Persian (90), Oman (91), West Arabian Sea (92), Central Somali (93); <i>Province - Western Indian Ocean (WIO)</i>: ecoregions - North Monsoon Current (94, Mons), East African Coral Coast (95, EAC), Seychelles (96, Sey), Cargados/Tromelin (97, Car), Mascarene Islands (98, Mas), Southeast Madagascar (99), West & North Madagascar (100, W&NM), Sofala (101), Delagoa (102); <i>Province - West & South India (WSI)</i>: ecoregions - West India (103), South India/Sri Lanka (104); <i>Province - Central Indian Ocean (CIO)</i>: ecoregions - Maldives (105), Chagos (106). The star shows the position of Tromelin Island (France). b) adjustments to the MEOW ecoregions and provinces suggested by this study (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013#pone-0045013-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>) and discussion. A possible east-west split in the southern Mozambique Channel is shown by a dotted line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["provinces", "indo-pacific", "excluding", "andaman", "seas"], "article_id"=>244406, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["David Obura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045013.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecoregions_and_provinces_of_the_Western_Indo_Pacific_Realm_excluding_the_Andaman_Seas_in_the_East_/244406", "title"=>"Ecoregions and provinces of the Western Indo-Pacific Realm, excluding the Andaman Seas in the East.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:05:35"}

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Relative Metric

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