Ontogenetic and Among-Individual Variation in Foraging Strategies of Northeast Pacific White Sharks Based on Stable Isotope Analysis
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{"title"=>"Ontogenetic and Among-Individual Variation in Foraging Strategies of Northeast Pacific White Sharks Based on Stable Isotope Analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sora L.", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"40461618300"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Tim", "last_name"=>"Tinker", "scopus_author_id"=>"35588232500"}, {"first_name"=>"James A.", "last_name"=>"Estes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103178276"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul L.", "last_name"=>"Koch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202929119"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365766134", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045068", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867028290", "pmid"=>"23028766", "sgr"=>"84867028290"}, "id"=>"4601c9a2-498d-3e54-a468-ea8f5db588d3", "abstract"=>"<p>There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (<italic>Carcharodon carcharias</italic>), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (&gt;5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ<sup>15</sup>N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ<sup>15</sup>N values increased throughout life, 2) δ<sup>15</sup>N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ<sup>15</sup>N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>shark-diet</sub> and Δ<sup>15</sup>N<sub>shark-diet</sub> equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary variation within a white shark population.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ontogenetic-amongindividual-variation-foraging-strategies-northeast-pacific-white-sharks-based-stabl-3", "reader_count"=>145, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>40, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>40, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>23, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>105, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>105}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>23}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Mozambique"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "South Africa"=>2, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565936"], "description"=>"<p>Average width of last 6 growth bands and average isotopic values from outer-12 mm of vertebrae from leopard sharks fed a constant diet of squid over 1250 days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["width", "bands", "isotopic", "outer-12", "mm", "vertebrae", "leopard", "sharks", "fed", "squid", "1250"], "article_id"=>236416, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_width_of_last_6_growth_bands_and_average_isotopic_values_from_outer_12_mm_of_vertebrae_from_leopard_sharks_fed_a_constant_diet_of_squid_over_1250_days_/236416", "title"=>"Average width of last 6 growth bands and average isotopic values from outer-12 mm of vertebrae from leopard sharks fed a constant diet of squid over 1250 days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 01:46:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565715"], "description"=>"<p>The colored symbols are from white sharks; open symbols represent years ≤1986 and closed symbols represent years >1986. Isotopic values for potential prey data are the grey boxes and are as follows: 1) northern elephant seal, 2) California sea lion, 3) harbor seal, 4) dolphin, 5) harbor porpoise, 6) tuna, 7) neritic fish, 8) offshore cephalopod, 9) nearshore cephalopod, 10) blue shark, 11) hammerhead shark. The mean prey isotope values were corrected for trophic enrichment (Δ<sup>13</sup>C = 4.2‰ and Δ<sup>15</sup>N = 2.5‰) and collagen-to-muscle (Δ<sup>13</sup>C = 2.0‰ and Δ<sup>15</sup>N = 0‰), if necessary (prey data and citations are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068#pone.0045068.s002\" target=\"_blank\">File S2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitrogen", "isotope", "sub-adult", "bands", "years"], "article_id"=>236207, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_values_from_sub_adult_to_adult_growth_bands_8805_6_years_old_/236207", "title"=>"Carbon and nitrogen isotope values from sub-adult to adult growth bands (≥6 years old).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 01:43:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/300100", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/300135", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/300238"], "description"=>"<div><p>There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (<em>Carcharodon carcharias</em>), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ<sup>15</sup>N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ<sup>15</sup>N values increased throughout life, 2) δ<sup>15</sup>N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ<sup>15</sup>N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>shark-diet</sub> and Δ<sup>15</sup>N<sub>shark-diet</sub> equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary variation within a white shark population.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontogenetic", "among-individual", "foraging", "strategies", "pacific", "sharks", "based", "isotope"], "article_id"=>119182, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ontogenetic_and_Among_Individual_Variation_in_Foraging_Strategies_of_Northeast_Pacific_White_Sharks_Based_on_Stable_Isotope_Analysis/119182", "title"=>"Ontogenetic and Among-Individual Variation in Foraging Strategies of Northeast Pacific White Sharks Based on Stable Isotope Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 02:33:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565632"], "description"=>"<p>A) Individuals modeled with a VBGF curve. B) Individuals showing a significant linearly increasing trend. C) Individuals showing no significant pattern. Average pre-parturition δ<sup>15</sup>N values (n = 3) are indicated as grey filled circles for individuals with relatively high juvenile δ<sup>15</sup>N values (>17‰).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["increment", "15"], "article_id"=>236121, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_15_N_values_versus_growth_increment_number_age_for_15_white_sharks_/236121", "title"=>"δ<sup>15</sup>N values versus growth increment number (age) for 15 white sharks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 01:42:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565817"], "description"=>"<p>A) The 90% confidence limit for the population (black ellipse) and for individual sharks (colored ellipses). B) The distribution of the proportional similarity index, <i>w<sub>ij</sub></i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068#pone.0045068-Lu1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>, within the sampled population of California white sharks, which exhibits strong individuality with both specialists and generalists.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "overlap"], "article_id"=>236312, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_niche_overlap_between_each_individual_and_the_population_/236312", "title"=>"The niche overlap between each individual and the population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 01:45:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565969"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations are as follows: California Academy of Sciences (CAS), Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (LACM), G. Chan (GC), Moss Landing Marine Lab (MLML), K. Goldman (KG), S. Anderson (SA), and Long Marine Lab (LML).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proportional"], "article_id"=>236466, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Medicine", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sora L. Kim", "M. Tim Tinker", "James A. Estes", "Paul L. Koch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045068.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_biological_and_collection_data_and_proportional_similarity_index_w_ij_for_white_sharks_/236466", "title"=>"Summary of biological and collection data and proportional similarity index (<i>w<sub>ij</sub></i>) for white sharks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-28 01:47:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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