Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/302375"], "description"=>"<div><p>Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the “stability profiles” of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["profiles", "family-specific", "connections", "languages"], "article_id"=>119638, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abstract_Profiles_of_Structural_Stability_Point_to_Universal_Tendencies_Family_Specific_Factors_and_Ancient_Connections_between_Languages/119638", "title"=>"Abstract Profiles of Structural Stability Point to Universal Tendencies, Family-Specific Factors, and Ancient Connections between Languages", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 02:40:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572405"], "description"=>"<p>Please note that and are very close in this space.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>242908, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_stability_hyper_cube_for_two_features_and_the_stability_profiles_of_three_language_families_and_and_the_stability_distances_between_language_families_shown_for_and_/242908", "title"=>"The <i>stability hyper-cube</i> for two features and , the <i>stability profiles</i> of three language families , and and the <i>stability distances</i> between language families (shown for and ).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 00:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572455"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are the first (horizontal) and second (vertical) dimensions. We distinguished ten geographical regions represented by a distinct color and single digits, as follows: <i>South America</i> (<b>0</b>, dark blue), <i>Central America</i> (<b>1</b>, blue), <i>South America</i> (<b>2</b>, light blue), <i>Southern Africa</i> (<b>3</b>, black), <i>Northern Africa</i> (<b>4</b>, red), <i>Eurasia</i> (<b>5</b>, pink), <i>South Asia</i> (<b>6</b>, orange), <i>Oceania</i> (<b>7</b>, green), <i>Papua-New Guinea</i> (<b>8</b>, dark green) and <i>Australia</i> (<b>9</b>, cyan). The language families are represented by single lower case letters allocated in alphabetical order per geographical region, as follows: <i>Arawakan</i> (<b>0a</b>), <i>Carib</i> (<b>0b</b>), <i>Macro-Ge</i> (<b>0c</b>), <i>Tucanoan</i> (<b>0d</b>), <i>Tupi</i> (<b>0e</b>), <i>Chibchan</i> (<b>1a</b>), <i>Mayan</i> (<b>1b</b>), <i>Oto-Manguean</i> (<b>1c</b>), <i>Uto-Aztecan</i> (<b>1d</b>), <i>Algic</i> (<b>2a</b>), <i>Hokan</i> (<b>2b</b>), <i>Na-Dene</i> (<b>2c</b>), <i>Penutian</i> (<b>2d</b>), <i>Salishan</i> (<b>2e</b>), <i>Wakashan</i> (<b>2f</b>), <i>Khoisan</i> (<b>3a</b>), <i>Niger-Congo</i> (<b>3b</b>), <i>Afro-Asiatic</i> (<b>4a</b>), <i>Nilo-Saharan</i> (<b>4b</b>), <i>Altaic</i> (<b>5a</b>), <i>Chukotko-Kamchatkan</i> (<b>5b</b>), <i>Dravidian</i> (<b>5c</b>), <i>Indo-European</i> (<b>5d</b>), <i>North-Caucasian</i> (<b>5e</b>), <i>Uralic</i> (<b>5f</b>), <i>Austro-Asiatic</i> (<b>6a</b>), <i>Sino-Tibetan</i> (<b>6b</b>), <i>Tai-Kadai</i> (<b>6c</b>), <i>Austronesian</i> (<b>7a</b>), <i>Sepik</i> (<b>8a</b>), <i>Trans-New-Guinea</i> (<b>8b</b>), <i>West-Papuan</i> (<b>8c</b>) and <i>Australian</i> (<b>9a</b>). It can be seen that most of the American language families are distinguished from the others by the first dimension (left side) respecting the north (bottom) - south (top) geographic direction as well (second dimension). <i>Eurasia</i> occupies the bottom-right quadrant while <i>South Asia</i> and <i>Oceania</i> group together as well. Interestingly, <i>Chukotko-Kamchatkan</i> (<b>5b</b>; marked with a black arrow) clusters with the (Central and North) American language families. See supplementary figures in <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for all 12 datasets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaling", "relationships", "profiles", "mbe"], "article_id"=>242954, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multidimensional_scaling_MDS_plot_of_the_relationships_between_the_stability_profiles_of_the_language_families_for_the_MBE_dataset_/242954", "title"=>"Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of the relationships between the stability profiles of the language families for the MBE dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 00:49:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572506"], "description"=>"<p>Same clusters as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone-0045198-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> can be observed but the attachment of <i>Chukotko-Kamchatkan</i> (<b>5b</b>; marked with a black arrow) is now clearer with the North American families <i>Algic</i> (<b>2a</b>), <i>Penutian</i> (<b>2d</b>), <i>Wakashan</i> (<b>2f</b>), and the Central American <i>Uto-Aztecan</i> (<b>1d</b>) whose geographical range, in fact, extends well into North America. See supplementary figures in <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for all 12 datasets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "profiles", "conventions"], "article_id"=>243005, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_representation_of_the_relationships_between_the_same_stability_profiles_as_in_Figure_2_same_conventions_apply_/243005", "title"=>"Network representation of the relationships between the same stability profiles as in Figure 2 (same conventions apply).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 00:50:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572557"], "description"=>"<p>The most <i>conservative</i> combined <i>p</i>-value and the <i>number</i> of combined <i>p</i>-values significant at -level = 0.05 for the five methods (Fisher, Z-transform, Hartung, Simes and Makambi) as applied to all 12 datasets for raw and geography-corrected stability distances. The combined <i>p</i>-values significant at -level = 0.05 are in <b>bold</b>). The sets with at least 4 significant combined <i>p</i>-values in both the raw and geography-corrected columns are also in <b>bold</b>. See <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for full details.</p>†<p>See <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for the exact composition of these sets. <b>(vs America)</b>: randomization only within the Americas. <b>(vs world)</b>: randomization not restricted.</p>‡<p>Here we report the results for the maximal composition of “Siberia”, namely <i>Chukotko-Kamchatkan</i>, <i>Tungusic</i> and <i>Yukaghir</i> (the results are very similar when excluding <i>Tungusic</i>). See text and <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["robustness", "sets"], "article_id"=>243054, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_robustness_of_sets_of_language_families_/243054", "title"=>"Statistical robustness of sets of language families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 00:50:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/572578"], "description"=>"<p>This ranking represents the consensus among all 12 datasets as given by the first principal component () of a Principal Component Analysis run on all polymorphic ranks, explaining of the variance and representing the agreement. See <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Materials S1</a></b> for details and WALS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198-Haspelmath2\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198#pone.0045198-Dryer1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a> for the description of the features.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["15"], "article_id"=>243081, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dan Dediu", "Stephen C. Levinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045198.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Top_and_bottom_15_most_stable_features_/243081", "title"=>"Top and bottom 15 most stable features.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-20 00:51:21"}

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