Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation
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{"title"=>"Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elaine S.", "last_name"=>"Leung", "scopus_author_id"=>"25722038400"}, {"first_name"=>"B. Louise", "last_name"=>"Chilvers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602572083"}, {"first_name"=>"Shinichi", "last_name"=>"Nakagawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55949096500"}, {"first_name"=>"Antoni B.", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"19337819100"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruce C.", "last_name"=>"Robertson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201834620"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365684407", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045389", "sgr"=>"84866511670", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866511670", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23028978"}, "id"=>"8f4fcbfd-f6b7-39a9-96ed-50e232d8eb39", "abstract"=>"Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch. Ci", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sexual-segregation-juvenile-new-zealand-sea-lion-foraging-ranges-implications-intraspecific-competit", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576065"], "description"=>"*<p>Trip distances represent complete foraging trips.</p>§<p>Max distances represent maximum straight-line distance from the furthest recorded point to the study site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "juvenile", "zealand", "lions"], "article_id"=>246558, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Foraging_trip_characteristics_for_female_and_male_juvenile_New_Zealand_sea_lions_Phocarctos_hookeri_/246558", "title"=>"Foraging trip characteristics for female and male juvenile New Zealand sea lions (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:49:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575936"], "description"=>"<p>Individuals had 0–75% of their 95% kernel utilisation distribution overlap with squid trawl fisheries operations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["juvenile", "zealand", "lions", "fisheries"], "article_id"=>246427, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_female_and_male_juvenile_New_Zealand_sea_lions_Phocarctos_hookeri_with_fisheries_overlap_/246427", "title"=>"Proportion of female and male juvenile New Zealand sea lions (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>) with fisheries overlap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575881"], "description"=>"<p>The proportion of UD overlap with squid trawl fisheries operations is indicated in red or blue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["juvenile", "zealand", "lions"], "article_id"=>246376, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Utilisation_distribution_UD_size_of_female_and_male_juvenile_New_Zealand_sea_lions_Phocarctos_hookeri_/246376", "title"=>"Utilisation distribution (UD) size of female and male juvenile New Zealand sea lions (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:46:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576097"], "description"=>"<p>Age, size and number of days instruments deployed for female and male juvenile New Zealand sea lions (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["days", "instruments", "deployed", "juvenile", "zealand", "lions"], "article_id"=>246581, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_size_and_number_of_days_instruments_deployed_for_female_and_male_juvenile_New_Zealand_sea_lions_Phocarctos_hookeri_/246581", "title"=>"Age, size and number of days instruments deployed for female and male juvenile New Zealand sea lions (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575674"], "description"=>"<p>Sandy Bay study site, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands, New Zealand (50°30′S, 166°17′E).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enderby", "auckland", "zealand"], "article_id"=>246164, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sandy_Bay_study_site_Enderby_Island_Auckland_Islands_New_Zealand_50_176_30_8242_S_166_176_17_8242_E_/246164", "title"=>"Sandy Bay study site, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands, New Zealand (50°30′S, 166°17′E).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:42:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/303905", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/303959", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304015", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304050", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304094", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304147"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (<em>Phocarctos hookeri</em>), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["segregation", "juvenile", "zealand", "foraging", "implications", "intraspecific"], "article_id"=>119938, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>27, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sexual_Segregation_in_Juvenile_New_Zealand_Sea_Lion_Foraging_Ranges_Implications_for_Intraspecific_Competition_Population_Dynamics_and_Conservation/119938", "title"=>"Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 02:45:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576022"], "description"=>"*<p>Effect sizes have been standardised following Schielzeth (2010).</p>§<p>Relative importance values in bold indicate the confidence intervals for these parameter estimates do not include zero, indicating these predictor variables have a strong effect on foraging behaviour.</p><p>CI, confidence interval; ICC, intra-class correlation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "models", "juvenile", "zealand", "foraging", "duration", "percent", "spent"], "article_id"=>246506, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elaine S. Leung", "B. Louise Chilvers", "Shinichi Nakagawa", "Antoni B. Moore", "Bruce C. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045389.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_results_of_linear_mixed_effects_models_run_on_juvenile_New_Zealand_sea_lion_Phocarctos_hookeri_foraging_trip_characteristics_effects_of_each_variable_on_trip_distance_maximum_distance_from_study_site_foraging_cycle_duration_and_percent_time_spent/246506", "title"=>"Summary results of linear mixed effects models run on juvenile New Zealand sea lion (<i>Phocarctos hookeri</i>) foraging trip characteristics: effects of each variable on trip distance, maximum distance from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time spent at sea.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-18 01:48:26"}

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Relative Metric

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