Urban Stormwater Runoff: A New Class of Environmental Flow Problem
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{"title"=>"Urban Stormwater Runoff: A New Class of Environmental Flow Problem", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Walsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"35328211600"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim D.", "last_name"=>"Fletcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"56251580300"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew J.", "last_name"=>"Burns", "scopus_author_id"=>"36643423100"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365690718", "sgr"=>"84866550907", "pmid"=>"23029257", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866550907", "isbn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045814", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"fb284913-9fc8-3b61-82d9-99c789505c50", "abstract"=>"Environmental flow assessment frameworks have begun to consider changes to flow regimes resulting from land-use change. Urban stormwater runoff, which degrades streams through altered volume, pattern and quality of flow, presents a problem that challenges dominant approaches to stormwater and water resource management, and to environmental flow assessment. We used evidence of ecological response to different stormwater drainage systems to develop methods for input to environmental flow assessment. We identified the nature of hydrologic change resulting from conventional urban stormwater runoff, and the mechanisms by which such hydrologic change is prevented in streams where ecological condition has been protected. We also quantified the increase in total volume resulting from urban stormwater runoff, by comparing annual streamflow volumes from undeveloped catchments with the volumes that would run off impervious surfaces under the same rainfall regimes. In catchments with as little as 5-10% total imperviousness, conventional stormwater drainage, associated with poor in-stream ecological condition, reduces contributions to baseflows and increases the frequency and magnitude of storm flows, but in similarly impervious catchments in which streams retain good ecological condition, informal drainage to forested hillslopes, without a direct piped discharge to the stream, results in little such hydrologic change. In urbanized catchments, dispersed urban stormwater retention measures can potentially protect urban stream ecosystems by mimicking the hydrologic effects of informal drainage, if sufficient water is harvested and kept out of the stream, and if discharged water is treated to a suitable quality. Urban stormwater is a new class of environmental flow problem: one that requires reduction of a large excess volume of water to maintain riverine ecological integrity. It is the best type of problem, because solving it provides an opportunity to solve other problems such as the provision of water for human use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/urban-stormwater-runoff-new-class-environmental-flow-problem-3", "reader_count"=>163, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>45, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>45, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>39, "Environmental Science"=>62, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Design"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>62}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>5}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>39}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Brazil"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575091"], "description"=>"<p>I. Mean ± range daily rainfall recorded in the three rain gauges that fall within the area bounded by catchments of the streams. II. 5- or 6-minute hydrographs for each stream. Three flow events (A, B and C) are discussed in the text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["discharge", "streams", "43", "days"], "article_id"=>245577, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Rainfall_and_discharge_of_the_four_study_streams_over_43_days_in_2004_/245577", "title"=>"Rainfall and discharge of the four study streams over 43 days in 2004.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575184"], "description"=>"<p>Annual volume of runoff from 1 ha of impervious surface (from the relationship between impervious runoff coefficient and annual rainfall shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone-0045814-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>), partitioned into two parts: the volume that needs to be passed through infiltration systems (or catchment soils) to restore lost subsurface flows (grey polygon), and the volume that needs to be retained in the catchment and not delivered to the stream (through evapotranspirational loss or through use and export from the catchment through the wastewater stream). For each part, a range is indicated between situations in which the target streamflow is predicted by the grassland curve (more stream flow, less retention in catchment) or by the forest curve (less streamflow, more retention in the catchment) of Zhang et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Zhang2\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a> (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone-0045814-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["runoff", "partitioned", "subsurface", "flows"], "article_id"=>245671, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impervious_runoff_volume_partitioned_into_lost_subsurface_flows_and_lost_evapotranspiration_/245671", "title"=>"Impervious runoff volume partitioned into lost subsurface flows and lost evapotranspiration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:12:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574989"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated annual runoff coefficients (C) from impervious surfaces (open triangles) from sites across the Melbourne region as a function of mean annual rainfall (MAR). Regression line: C = 0.230+0.206×log<sub>10</sub>(MAR). <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.94. Annual streamflow coefficients from 11 streams with forested (closed circles), grassland (open circles) or mixed forested and grassland catchments (grey circles) across the Melbourne region as a function of mean annual rainfall. The lines surrounding these stream points are the relationships between streamflow derived by Zhang et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Zhang2\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a> for grassland (dashed curve) and forested catchments (dotted curve) of the world.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["runoff", "streamflow", "coefficients", "melbourne"], "article_id"=>245478, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impervious_runoff_and_streamflow_coefficients_for_the_Melbourne_region_/245478", "title"=>"Impervious runoff and streamflow coefficients for the Melbourne region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:11:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575402"], "description"=>"1<p>Streams outside the Melbourne region, for which streamflow coefficients were derived by Jolly et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Jolly1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a> and catchment vegetation classes were assigned by Zhang et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Zhang1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>.</p>2<p>Streams in the Melbourne region, for which streamflow coefficients were derived using Melbourne Water flow gauge data and Bureau of Meteorology rainfall data for 1994–1996. Catchment vegetation classes were estimated from 2001 aerial imagery.</p>3<p>Catchment vegetation class is indicated for flow-gauging stations used to calculate streamflow coefficients. <sup>4</sup>Stations from which rainfall data were used to estimate impervious runoff are indicated in the final column.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rainfall", "gauging", "stations"], "article_id"=>245891, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Flow_and_rainfall_gauging_stations_used_in_the_water_balance_analyses_with_period_of_data_used_/245891", "title"=>"Flow and rainfall gauging stations used in the water balance analyses, with period of data used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:13:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/574830"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Total and (B) connected imperviousness (estimated for 2004). Median 2001–2002 (C) dissolved organic carbon, (D) electrical conductivity, (E) filterable reactive phosphorus. (F) Mean 2001–2002 median benthic chlorophyll <i>a</i>, as an estimate of algal biomass. (G) Indice biologique diatomée (IBD) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Lenoir1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>. (H) SIGNAL score <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Chessman1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a> for stream-edge samples. IBD and SIGNAL are indices based on diatom species and macroinvertebrate families, respectively, weighting each taxon by their sensitivity to pollution. Adapted from Walsh et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Walsh3\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>, with minor revision to Little Stringybark Creek values from 2004 aerial photos and ground-truthing). Sass.  =  Sassafras Creek, L. Str.  =  Little Stringybark Creek.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization", "measures", "in-stream", "indicators", "contrasting", "streams"], "article_id"=>245302, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Catchment_urbanization_measures_and_in_stream_ecological_indicators_for_four_contrasting_streams_in_eastern_Melbourne_/245302", "title"=>"Catchment urbanization measures and in-stream ecological indicators for four contrasting streams in eastern Melbourne.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/575261"], "description"=>"<p>I. The model proposed by Gleick and Palaniappan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Gleick1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a> assumes that any extraction from aquatic ecosystems has a negative ecological impact, predicting a monotonic decline of increasing gradient with greater extraction. The benefits accrued by the human population rise linearly with the volume extracted. Beyond peak ecological water (P) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814#pone.0045814-Gleick1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a>, any increase in human benefit is outweighed by reduced ecological benefit. II. illustrates different trends in ecological and human cost and benefit with increasing retention and use of stormwater before it reaches aquatic ecosystems. No stormwater use (A) results in ecological degradation of receiving waters. It also presents greater costs in urban microclimate control and flood mitigation than if stormwater was harvested. Using a volume of stormwater equivalent to the volume lost to evapotranspiration in the pre-urban state (B), if coupled with infiltration systems to restore lost sub-surface flows, provides maximum environmental benefit. Using all available stormwater runoff (C) has an environmental cost by reducing subsurface flow delivery to stream.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graphs"], "article_id"=>245759, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Walsh", "Tim D. Fletcher", "Matthew J. Burns"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045814.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Conceptual_graphs_of_ecological_and_human_value_of_water_/245759", "title"=>"Conceptual graphs of ecological and human value of water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 23:12:47"}

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Relative Metric

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