Similarities between Line Fishing and Baited Stereo-Video Estimations of Length-Frequency: Novel Application of Kernel Density Estimates
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{"title"=>"Similarities between Line Fishing and Baited Stereo-Video Estimations of Length-Frequency: Novel Application of Kernel Density Estimates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Timothy J.", "last_name"=>"Langlois", "scopus_author_id"=>"56258294000"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin R.", "last_name"=>"Fitzpatrick", "scopus_author_id"=>"55511171900"}, {"first_name"=>"David V.", "last_name"=>"Fairclough", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005086654"}, {"first_name"=>"Corey B.", "last_name"=>"Wakefield", "scopus_author_id"=>"16204677900"}, {"first_name"=>"S. Alex", "last_name"=>"Hesp", "scopus_author_id"=>"35615065100"}, {"first_name"=>"Dianne L.", "last_name"=>"McLean", "scopus_author_id"=>"36651011300"}, {"first_name"=>"Euan S.", "last_name"=>"Harvey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103155088"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica J.", "last_name"=>"Meeuwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603379568"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84870503802", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045973", "pui"=>"366195735", "pmid"=>"23209547", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870503802", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"d6a2f326-6c82-352a-b1a1-d166edff8483", "abstract"=>"<p>Age structure data is essential for single species stock assessments but length-frequency data can provide complementary information. In south-western Australia, the majority of these data for exploited species are derived from line caught fish. However, baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVS) surveys have also been found to provide accurate length measurements. Given that line fishing tends to be biased towards larger fish, we predicted that, stereo-BRUVS would yield length-frequency data with a smaller mean length and skewed towards smaller fish than that collected by fisheries-independent line fishing. To assess the biases and selectivity of stereo-BRUVS and line fishing we compared the length-frequencies obtained for three commonly fished species, using a novel application of the Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) method and the established Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test. The shape of the length-frequency distribution obtained for the labrid <italic>Choerodon rubescens</italic> by stereo-BRUVS and line fishing did not differ significantly, but, as predicted, the mean length estimated from stereo-BRUVS was 17% smaller. Contrary to our predictions, the mean length and shape of the length-frequency distribution for the epinephelid <italic>Epinephelides armatus</italic> did not differ significantly between line fishing and stereo-BRUVS. For the sparid <italic>Pagrus auratus</italic>, the length frequency distribution derived from the stereo-BRUVS method was bi-modal, while that from line fishing was uni-modal. However, the location of the first modal length class for <italic>P. auratus</italic> observed by each sampling method was similar. No differences were found between the results of the KS and KDE tests, however, KDE provided a data-driven method for approximating length-frequency data to a probability function and a useful way of describing and testing any differences between length-frequency samples. This study found the overall size selectivity of line fishing and stereo-BRUVS were unexpectedly similar.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/similarities-between-line-fishing-baited-stereovideo-estimations-lengthfrequency-novel-application-k", "reader_count"=>125, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Environmental Science"=>27, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>27}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "South Africa"=>3, "Australia"=>4, "Portugal"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534782"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed and dotted lines represent the kernel density estimate (KDE) probability density functions that approximate the Line and stereo-BRUVS length-frequency data, respectively. Grey bands represent one standard error either side of the null model of no difference between the KDEs for each method. Significance tests (<i>p</i>) were based on permutation tests of the area between the two probability density functions. Significance tests on raw data (top row) provide a test of differences in both location and shape of the length-frequency distributions, whereas tests on standardised data (bottom row) provide a test of shape only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kernel", "probability", "sampled"], "article_id"=>205268, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_kernel_density_estimate_KDE_probability_density_functions_using_mean_bandwidths_for_Choerodon_rubescens_Epinephelides_armatus_and_Pagrus_auratus_sampled_using_either_line_fishing_Line_or_stereo_BRUVS_/205268", "title"=>"Comparison of kernel density estimate (KDE) probability density functions, using mean bandwidths, for <i>Choerodon rubescens</i>, <i>Epinephelides armatus</i> and <i>Pagrus auratus</i> sampled using either line fishing (Line) or stereo-BRUVS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:27:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534926"], "description"=>"<p>Count of lengths (Count),minimum (Min.) and maximum (Max.) lengths are also given. Values considered to illustrate differences between the length-frequency distributions are shown in bold. All fish lengths are fork length and measured in mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retention", "length-frequency", "deviation", "kernel", "sampled", "baited", "underwater", "stereo-video"], "article_id"=>205406, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimum_legal_length_of_retention_MLL_length_frequency_mean_and_standard_deviation_SD_and_mode_estimated_by_the_kernel_density_estimate_KDE_for_Choerodon_rubescens_Epinephelides_armatus_and_Pagrus_auratus_sampled_by_fishing_Line_and_baited_remote_underwa/205406", "title"=>"Minimum legal length of retention (MLL), length-frequency mean and standard deviation (SD) and mode, estimated by the kernel density estimate (KDE) for <i>Choerodon rubescens</i>, <i>Epinephelides armatus</i> and <i>Pagrus auratus</i> sampled by fishing (Line) and baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUVS).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:30:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534976"], "description"=>"<p>Overall tests of raw data are sensitive to differences in location and shape, whereas comparison of data standardised by median and variance provide a test of shape only (Shape). <i>p</i> values are given, with significant effects (<i>p</i><0.05) also indicated in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kernel", "differences", "pairs", "length-frequency", "distributions", "sampled", "baited", "underwater"], "article_id"=>205462, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Kolmogorov_8211_Smirnov_KS_and_kernel_density_estimate_KDE_tests_of_differences_between_pairs_of_fish_length_frequency_distributions_sampled_by_line_fishing_and_baited_remote_underwater_stereo_video_/205462", "title"=>"Results of Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) and kernel density estimate (KDE) tests of differences between pairs of fish length-frequency distributions sampled by line fishing and baited remote underwater stereo-video.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:31:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287133", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287154"], "description"=>"<div><p>Age structure data is essential for single species stock assessments but length-frequency data can provide complementary information. In south-western Australia, the majority of these data for exploited species are derived from line caught fish. However, baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVS) surveys have also been found to provide accurate length measurements. Given that line fishing tends to be biased towards larger fish, we predicted that, stereo-BRUVS would yield length-frequency data with a smaller mean length and skewed towards smaller fish than that collected by fisheries-independent line fishing. To assess the biases and selectivity of stereo-BRUVS and line fishing we compared the length-frequencies obtained for three commonly fished species, using a novel application of the Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) method and the established Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test. The shape of the length-frequency distribution obtained for the labrid <em>Choerodon rubescens</em> by stereo-BRUVS and line fishing did not differ significantly, but, as predicted, the mean length estimated from stereo-BRUVS was 17% smaller. Contrary to our predictions, the mean length and shape of the length-frequency distribution for the epinephelid <em>Epinephelides armatus</em> did not differ significantly between line fishing and stereo-BRUVS. For the sparid <em>Pagrus auratus</em>, the length frequency distribution derived from the stereo-BRUVS method was bi-modal, while that from line fishing was uni-modal. However, the location of the first modal length class for <em>P. auratus</em> observed by each sampling method was similar. No differences were found between the results of the KS and KDE tests, however, KDE provided a data-driven method for approximating length-frequency data to a probability function and a useful way of describing and testing any differences between length-frequency samples. This study found the overall size selectivity of line fishing and stereo-BRUVS were unexpectedly similar.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["similarities", "baited", "stereo-video", "estimations", "kernel", "estimates"], "article_id"=>116589, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Similarities_between_Line_Fishing_and_Baited_Stereo_Video_Estimations_of_Length_Frequency_Novel_Application_of_Kernel_Density_Estimates__/116589", "title"=>"Similarities between Line Fishing and Baited Stereo-Video Estimations of Length-Frequency: Novel Application of Kernel Density Estimates", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:49:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534578"], "description"=>"<p>The separate bandwidth ‘h’ of each KDE was chosen by the Sheather & Jones (1991) bandwidth selection procedure. Length classes for the histogram of each species were chosen to match the KDE; <i>C. rubescens</i> 50 mm, <i>E. armatus</i> 40 mm and <i>P. auratus</i> 50 mm. Rug plot just above the x-axis indicate individual length observations. Dashed vertical lines indicate the minimum legal length of retention for each species and ‘n’, indicates the sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampled"], "article_id"=>205070, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_frequency_distribution_for_Choerodon_rubescens_Epinephelides_armatus_and_Pagrus_auratus_sampled_using_either_line_fishing_Line_or_stereo_BRUVS_/205070", "title"=>"Length-frequency distribution for <i>Choerodon rubescens</i>, <i>Epinephelides armatus</i> and <i>Pagrus auratus</i> sampled using either line fishing (Line) or stereo-BRUVS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:24:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534475"], "description"=>"<p>(B) Forward-facing baited remote underwater stereo-video system (stereo-BRUVS).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampling", "locations", "houtman-abrolhos", "islands", "rottnest", "adjacent", "perth"], "article_id"=>204941, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Timothy J. Langlois", "Benjamin R. Fitzpatrick", "David V. Fairclough", "Corey B. Wakefield", "S. Alex Hesp", "Dianne L. McLean", "Euan S. Harvey", "Jessica J. Meeuwig"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045973.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Western_Australia_showing_the_sampling_locations_at_A_the_Houtman_Abrolhos_Islands_and_Rottnest_Island_adjacent_to_the_Perth_metropolitan_area_/204941", "title"=>"Map of Western Australia, showing the sampling locations at (A) the Houtman-Abrolhos Islands and Rottnest Island, adjacent to the Perth metropolitan area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:22:21"}

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Relative Metric

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