Anthropogenic Influences on Conservation Values of White Rhinoceros
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{"title"=>"Anthropogenic Influences on Conservation Values of White Rhinoceros", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sam M.", "last_name"=>"Ferreira", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202480417"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith M.", "last_name"=>"Botha", "scopus_author_id"=>"55371015400"}, {"first_name"=>"Megan C.", "last_name"=>"Emmett", "scopus_author_id"=>"55371273700"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365755656", "sgr"=>"84866914971", "pmid"=>"23029354", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866914971", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045989", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"51666690-8a0f-3584-88e2-d500dc698fdd", "abstract"=>"White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing \"management removals,\" but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anthropogenic-influences-conservation-values-white-rhinoceros", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>33, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>33}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mozambique"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "South Africa"=>2, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568307"], "description"=>"<p>Associations of deviances in population growth in landscapes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "deviances"], "article_id"=>238785, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_of_deviances_in_population_growth_in_landscapes_/238785", "title"=>"Associations of deviances in population growth in landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:34:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/567387"], "description"=>"<p>Kruger National Park and surrounds indicating landscapes as well as regions used to define population growth rates at different scales.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "surrounds", "landscapes", "regions", "rates"], "article_id"=>237858, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruger_National_Park_and_surrounds_indicating_landscapes_as_well_as_regions_used_to_define_population_growth_rates_at_different_scales_/237858", "title"=>"Kruger National Park and surrounds indicating landscapes as well as regions used to define population growth rates at different scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:30:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/567886"], "description"=>"<p>We also present age and sex proportions of white rhinos in source areas (solid bars, <i>n</i> = 2315) and sink areas (grey bars, <i>n</i> = 2725) noted during 2009–2011. If the bars separate at the vertical broken line then the proportion removed equals the proportion available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "proportions", "rhinos", "removed", "2009", "2010", "2011", "poaching", "recorded"], "article_id"=>238343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_and_sex_proportions_of_white_rhinos_removed_solid_bars_through_management_top_two_graphs_during_2009_n_s__215_2010_n_s__144_and_2011_n_s__107_respectively_and_poaching_bottom_two_graphs_during_2011_n_s__133_in_relation_to_age_and_sex_proportions_reco/238343", "title"=>"Age and sex proportions of white rhinos removed (solid bars) through management (top two graphs) during 2009 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 215), 2010 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 144) and 2011 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 107) respectively, and poaching (bottom two graphs) during 2011 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 133) in relation to age and sex proportions recorded for the population (grey bars) during 2009 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 1477), 2010 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 1110) and 2011 (<i>n<sub>s</sub></i> = 1236) respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:32:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568010"], "description"=>"<p>The error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. The horizontal fine line is population growth of zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "rhinos", "harvesting", "predictions", "poached", "resultant", "instantaneous", "exponential"], "article_id"=>238476, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_rhinos_predicted_from_the_harvesting_model_for_removal_broken_line_and_predictions_for_the_likely_number_of_rhinos_poached_solid_line_as_well_as_the_resultant_instantaneous_exponential_population_growth_stippled_line_/238476", "title"=>"Number of rhinos predicted from the harvesting model for removal (broken line) and predictions for the likely number of rhinos poached (solid line), as well as the resultant instantaneous exponential population growth (stippled line).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:33:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/567548"], "description"=>"<p>Note that a herbivore may stabilize at different population sizes depending on conditions imposed <i>e.g.</i> naturally limited (green line), constrained (red line) and harvested for maximum yield (blue line). The arrows indicate the likely available numbers for economic gain that will also enhance biodiversity objectives which focus on mimicking processes that has been impaired by landscape constraints. Most important is the temporal variability after stabilization that is wide and non-directional.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "sizes"], "article_id"=>238026, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_population_sizes_across_time_/238026", "title"=>"Conceptual population sizes across time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:30:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568263"], "description"=>"<p>We provide the residual sum of squares (<i>RSS</i>), coefficient of determination (<i>R<sup>2</sup></i>) as well as Aikaike Information Criterium (<i>AICc</i>) as illustration of best model fit given the data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "models", "observed", "rhino", "estimates", "kruger"], "article_id"=>238731, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_models_for_observed_white_rhino_estimates_in_Kruger_National_Park_/238731", "title"=>"Population models for observed white rhino estimates in Kruger National Park.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:34:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568134"], "description"=>"<p>We also provide examples of trade scenarios and financial models (B) that make different predictions about influences on the demand and supply ratio and ultimately white rhino population persistence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "conceptual", "defines", "rhino", "poaching", "incentives"], "article_id"=>238604, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_conceptual_model_that_defines_rhino_horn_value_and_hence_poaching_incentives_A_/238604", "title"=>"A conceptual model that defines rhino horn value and hence poaching incentives (A).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:33:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568353"], "description"=>"<p>Landscape specific model fits.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy"], "article_id"=>238834, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landscape_specific_model_fits_/238834", "title"=>"Landscape specific model fits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:35:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/567788"], "description"=>"<p>We provide 95% confidence intervals (error bars) for different survey platforms and estimating techniques (A). Following estimator averaging, we present the generalized trend in white rhino population estimates (B). The solid thick line is the best fit model (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989#pone-0045989-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). We also present the predicted estimates if no removals or poaching took place (solid thin line), if no removals took place (thin broken line) and if no poaching took place (thin stippled line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "rhino", "estimates", "1998", "2010", "sample-based"], "article_id"=>238260, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_White_rhino_population_estimates_from_1998_to_2010_when_sample_based_estimates_were_used_/238260", "title"=>"White rhino population estimates from 1998 to 2010 when sample-based estimates were used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:32:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/567644"], "description"=>"<p>Historical trends in A) white rhino management, B) white rhino poaching, C) white rhino population surveys and estimates, and D) the presence of rhinos in different landscapes in Kruger National Park.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "biodiversity", "Community Ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological economics", "Population ecology", "Restoration ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Population modeling", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "trends", "rhino", "surveys", "rhinos", "landscapes", "kruger"], "article_id"=>238111, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sam M. Ferreira", "Judith M. Botha", "Megan C. Emmett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045989.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Historical_trends_in_A_white_rhino_management_B_white_rhino_poaching_C_white_rhino_population_surveys_and_estimates_and_D_the_presence_of_rhinos_in_different_landscapes_in_Kruger_National_Park_/238111", "title"=>"Historical trends in A) white rhino management, B) white rhino poaching, C) white rhino population surveys and estimates, and D) the presence of rhinos in different landscapes in Kruger National Park.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:31:19"}

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Relative Metric

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