Statistical Analysis of Individual Participant Data Meta-Analyses: A Comparison of Methods and Recommendations for Practice
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{"title"=>"Statistical Analysis of Individual Participant Data Meta-Analyses: A Comparison of Methods and Recommendations for Practice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gavin B.", "last_name"=>"Stewart", "scopus_author_id"=>"8702381200"}, {"first_name"=>"Douglas G.", "last_name"=>"Altman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201380947"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa M.", "last_name"=>"Askie", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603045596"}, {"first_name"=>"Lelia", "last_name"=>"Duley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006793109"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark C.", "last_name"=>"Simmonds", "scopus_author_id"=>"16550592600"}, {"first_name"=>"Lesley A.", "last_name"=>"Stewart", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202187065"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867036811", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046042", "sgr"=>"84867036811", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23056232", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365779572"}, "id"=>"1c9dd416-3630-33b0-8fd1-e7cfc6da33fc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain \"raw\" data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a \"two-stage\" approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of \"one-stage\" approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare \"two-stage\" and \"one-stage\" models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 24 randomised controlled trials, evaluating antiplatelet agents, for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. We performed two-stage and one-stage IPD meta-analyses to estimate overall treatment effect and to explore potential treatment interactions whereby particular types of women and their babies might benefit differentially from receiving antiplatelets. Two-stage and one-stage approaches gave similar results, showing a benefit of using anti-platelets (Relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Neither approach suggested that any particular type of women benefited more or less from antiplatelets. There were no material differences in results between different types of one-stage model.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: For these data, two-stage and one-stage approaches to analysis produce similar results. Although one-stage models offer a flexible environment for exploring model structure and are useful where across study patterns relating to types of participant, intervention and outcome mask similar relationships within trials, the additional insights provided by their usage may not outweigh the costs of statistical support for routine application in syntheses of randomised controlled trials. Researchers considering undertaking an IPD meta-analysis should not necessarily be deterred by a perceived need for sophisticated statistical methods when combining information from large randomised trials.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/statistical-analysis-individual-participant-data-metaanalyses-comparison-methods-recommendations-pra-2", "reader_count"=>76, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Mathematics"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>37, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>9, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>37}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>9}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565808"], "description"=>"<p>Models 3 to 5 have fixed treatment-covariate interactions such that the effect of the covariate and the treatment-covariate interaction are common to all trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "one-stage", "models", "approximate", "computational"], "article_id"=>236296, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Key_characteristics_of_one_stage_models_in_approximate_order_of_increasing_computational_complexity_/236296", "title"=>"Key characteristics of one-stage models in approximate order of increasing computational complexity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:44:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565879"], "description"=>"<p>The two-stage model with fixed-effect replicating the analysis of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042#pone.0046042-Askie1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>. One-stage models were consistent whether treatment effects were fixed or random.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["risks", "categorical", "covariates", "two-stage"], "article_id"=>236373, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_risks_and_p_values_for_the_interaction_between_treatment_and_categorical_covariates_using_one_and_two_stage_models_/236373", "title"=>"Relative risks and p values for the interaction between treatment and categorical covariates using one and two-stage models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565460"], "description"=>"<p>Q(df = 23) = 31.19, p = 0.12, I<sup>2</sup> = 26.3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["risks", "pre-eclampsia", "inverse", "variance", "two-stage", "replicating"], "article_id"=>235943, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_relative_risks_of_developing_pre_eclampsia_fixed_effect_inverse_variance_model_based_on_two_stage_analysis_replicating_the_analysis_of_29_/235943", "title"=>"Forest plot of relative risks of developing pre-eclampsia (fixed-effect inverse variance model based on two-stage analysis replicating the analysis of [<b>29</b>]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:39:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565839"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of relative risk and heterogeneity (Tau<sup>2</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heterogeneity"], "article_id"=>236335, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_relative_risk_and_heterogeneity_Tau_2_/236335", "title"=>"Estimates of relative risk and heterogeneity (Tau<sup>2</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:45:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565666"], "description"=>"<p>Relative risk and p value for treatment-covariate interactions for continuous covariates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["treatment-covariate", "interactions"], "article_id"=>236157, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_risk_and_p_value_for_treatment_covariate_interactions_for_continuous_covariates_/236157", "title"=>"Relative risk and p value for treatment-covariate interactions for continuous covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:42:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299422", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299463", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299532"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain “raw” data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a “two-stage” approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of “one-stage” approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare “two-stage” and “one-stage” models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We included data from 24 randomised controlled trials, evaluating antiplatelet agents, for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. We performed two-stage and one-stage IPD meta-analyses to estimate overall treatment effect and to explore potential treatment interactions whereby particular types of women and their babies might benefit differentially from receiving antiplatelets. Two-stage and one-stage approaches gave similar results, showing a benefit of using anti-platelets (Relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Neither approach suggested that any particular type of women benefited more or less from antiplatelets. There were no material differences in results between different types of one-stage model.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>For these data, two-stage and one-stage approaches to analysis produce similar results. Although one-stage models offer a flexible environment for exploring model structure and are useful where across study patterns relating to types of participant, intervention and outcome mask similar relationships within trials, the additional insights provided by their usage may not outweigh the costs of statistical support for routine application in syntheses of randomised controlled trials. Researchers considering undertaking an IPD meta-analysis should not necessarily be deterred by a perceived need for sophisticated statistical methods when combining information from large randomised trials.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods", "recommendations"], "article_id"=>119036, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Statistical_Analysis_of_Individual_Participant_Data_Meta_Analyses_A_Comparison_of_Methods_and_Recommendations_for_Practice/119036", "title"=>"Statistical Analysis of Individual Participant Data Meta-Analyses: A Comparison of Methods and Recommendations for Practice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 02:30:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565630"], "description"=>"<p>Pragmatic guidance for IPD systematic reviews and meta-analyses of intervention effects based on randomised trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ipd", "systematic", "reviews", "meta-analyses", "randomised"], "article_id"=>236111, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Gavin B. Stewart", "Douglas G. Altman", "Lisa M. Askie", "Lelia Duley", "Mark C. Simmonds", "Lesley A. Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046042.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pragmatic_guidance_for_IPD_systematic_reviews_and_meta_analyses_of_intervention_effects_based_on_randomised_trials_/236111", "title"=>"Pragmatic guidance for IPD systematic reviews and meta-analyses of intervention effects based on randomised trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:41:51"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Clinical medicine", "average_usage"=>[320, 556, 672, 767, 863, 963, 1059, 1140, 1221, 1310, 1393, 1465, 1536, 1600, 1652, 1705, 1767, 1838, 1912, 1952, 2007, 2056, 2116, 2159, 2205]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Vascular medicine", "average_usage"=>[275, 494, 608, 705, 791, 880, 964, 1056, 1143, 1227, 1296, 1370, 1434, 1506, 1564, 1635, 1705, 1771, 1833, 1871, 1940, 1991, 2026, 2090, 2147]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Women's health", "average_usage"=>[335, 562, 652, 758, 855, 968, 1105, 1204, 1286, 1399, 1500, 1586, 1673, 1753, 1811, 1907, 1974, 2053, 2111, 2191, 2264, 2350, 2410, 2486, 2541]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[325, 522, 627, 718, 804, 884, 969, 1052, 1131, 1207, 1277, 1346, 1415, 1478, 1542, 1605, 1663, 1723, 1776, 1839, 1895, 1955, 2008, 2066, 2123]}]}
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