Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger
Publication Date
September 27, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Sergio A. Lambertucci, Martina Carrete, José Antonio Donázar & Fernando Hiraldo
Volume
7
Issue
9
Pages
e46347
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0046347
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029488
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459903
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23029488
Web of Science
000309517500091
Scopus
84866890447
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/largescale-agedependent-skewed-sex-ratio-sexually-dimorphic-avian-scavenger
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sergio A.", "last_name"=>"Lambertucci", "scopus_author_id"=>"24338196900"}, {"first_name"=>"Martina", "last_name"=>"Carrete", "scopus_author_id"=>"8053037100"}, {"first_name"=>"José Antonio", "last_name"=>"Donázar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003603310"}, {"first_name"=>"Fernando", "last_name"=>"Hiraldo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003612699"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84866890447", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046347", "pui"=>"365755717", "pmid"=>"23029488", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866890447", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"a2b0d14f-b9f4-3e2b-a78b-9bf90b641207", "abstract"=>"Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/largescale-agedependent-skewed-sex-ratio-sexually-dimorphic-avian-scavenger", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568889"], "description"=>"<p>Data on sexes is separated by age-class (adult vs. immature, the latter including juveniles and subadults). Surveys included in this table were made by field observations of birds roosting in communal roosts <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347#pone.0046347-Feijo1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a> (and this study), performing foraging flights <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347#pone.0046347-Sarno1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, or feeding at carcasses <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347#pone.0046347-Donzar1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347#pone.0046347-RosUzeda1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, and molecular sexing of moulted feathers collected at communal roosts <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347#pone.0046347-Alcaide1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>. We included data on the maximum number of individuals (Maximum) and the total number of individuals counted in a survey (Total; see methods for more details).</p>1<p>Condor behaviour at the time of survey (i.e. foraging, feeding, or roosting).</p><p>AM/AF = Adult male to adult female; IM/IF = Immature male to immature female; JM/JF = Juvenile male to juvenile female; J = Juvenile; SA = Subadult;</p><p>P = significance; ns = no significant, *≤0.05, **≤0.001 (Binomial test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["andean", "condors", "regions"], "article_id"=>239380, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sergio A. Lambertucci", "Martina Carrete", "José Antonio Donázar", "Fernando Hiraldo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sex_ratio_male_to_female_of_Andean_condors_in_different_regions_within_the_distribution_range_of_the_species_/239380", "title"=>"Sex ratio (male to female) of Andean condors in different regions within the distribution range of the species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:38:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568778"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of Andean condors (historic: light grey, and current: dark grey) showing the localities (black points) of studies reporting sex-age classes. Inset graphs indicate sex ratios (male:female) for each age class, the dotted line indicates a balanced sex ratio. Data correspond to the maximum (Max) and the total (Total) number of individuals reported in each survey (see methods for more detail on definitions). Estimates of sex ratio were made by means of: direct observations in communal roosts (B; D), molecular sexing of moulted feathers collected in roosts (E), observations of birds performing foraging flights (C; F), or feeding at carcases (A; C). Localities correspond to: A: Apolobamba Mountains, Bolivia; B: Córdoba, Argentina; C: Neuquén, Argentina; D: Northwest of Patagonia, Argentina; E: Patagonia, Argentina; and F: Torres del Paine, Chile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["condor"], "article_id"=>239276, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sergio A. Lambertucci", "Martina Carrete", "José Antonio Donázar", "Fernando Hiraldo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Andean_condor_distribution_and_sex_ratios_/239276", "title"=>"Andean condor distribution and sex ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:37:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/568510"], "description"=>"<p>Males (left and above) are larger than females, have a comb and a brown iris; females (right and below) have a red iris and no comb (Photos: M. Diéz Peña).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "andean", "condor"], "article_id"=>238999, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sergio A. Lambertucci", "Martina Carrete", "José Antonio Donázar", "Fernando Hiraldo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046347.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenotypic_differences_among_Andean_condor_sexes_/238999", "title"=>"Phenotypic differences among Andean condor sexes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 22:36:06"}

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Relative Metric

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