Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves
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{"title"=>"Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maris", "last_name"=>"Hindrikson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36699711700"}, {"first_name"=>"Peep", "last_name"=>"Männil", "scopus_author_id"=>"15760153200"}, {"first_name"=>"Janis", "last_name"=>"Ozolins", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506924185"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrzej", "last_name"=>"Krzywinski", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188752832"}, {"first_name"=>"Urmas", "last_name"=>"Saarma", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508125252"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"NIHMS150003", "sgr"=>"84867034288", "pmid"=>"23056315", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046465", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867034288", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365779611", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046465"}, "id"=>"6bd3291b-8919-388a-92f0-b856a8e8cc76", "abstract"=>"Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bucking-trend-wolfdog-hybridization-first-evidence-europe-hybridization-between-female-dogs-male-wol", "reader_count"=>190, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>33, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>137, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>137}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>33}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Russia"=>1, "India"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Bulgaria"=>2, "France"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Croatia"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566543"], "description"=>"<p>First-generation (F1) wolf-dog hybrids from Wildlife Park Kadzidlowo, Poland: female wolf×male Polish Spaniel (left); female wolf×West Siberian Laika (right) (photos: A. Krzywinski).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wolf-dog", "hybrids", "polish", "spaniel", "siberian", "laika"], "article_id"=>237027, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>505, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_First_generation_F1_wolf_dog_hybrids_from_Wildlife_Park_Kadzidlowo_Poland_female_wolf_215_male_Polish_Spaniel_left_female_wolf_215_West_Siberian_Laika_right_photos_A_Krzywinski_/237027", "title"=>"First-generation (F1) wolf-dog hybrids from Wildlife Park Kadzidlowo, Poland: female wolf×male Polish Spaniel (left); female wolf×West Siberian Laika (right) (photos: A. Krzywinski).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:57:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566703"], "description"=>"<p>Parameter set – two different ‘Usepopoinfo’ parameter sets (A, B) applied to the same data (n = 103). 0 – ‘Usepopinfo’ set to 0; 1 - ‘Usepopinfo’ set to 1; Ehy – hybrids from Estonia (n = 6); Lhy – hybrids from Latvia (n = 2). The q values (membership coefficient) indicate the probability of individual genotypes to belong to wolf cluster (in parentehesis 90% credible regions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wolf-dog", "hybrids", "estonia", "combinations", "parameter"], "article_id"=>237193, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Filial_generation_status_of_wolf_dog_hybrids_from_Estonia_and_Latvia_estimated_with_Structure_v2_2_under_different_combinations_of_8216_Usepopinfo_8217_parameter_settings_/237193", "title"=>"Filial generation status of wolf-dog hybrids from Estonia and Latvia, estimated with Structure v2.2 under different combinations of ‘Usepopinfo’ parameter settings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:59:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565432"], "description"=>"<p>The approximate ranges of wolves are with dark green (Estonia) and light green (Latvia).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locations", "wolves", "wolf-dog", "hybrids", "triangles", "estonia", "latvia", "hunted"], "article_id"=>235914, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sampling_locations_of_wolves_small_open_circles_and_wolf_dog_hybrids_black_triangles_1_8_see_also_Table_1_in_Estonia_Taebla_and_Latvia_Dikli_hunted_during_the_winter_period_of_2008_2009_/235914", "title"=>"Sampling locations of wolves (small open circles) and wolf-dog hybrids (black triangles 1–8, see also <b>Table 1</b>) in Estonia (Taebla) and Latvia (Dikli), hunted during the winter period of 2008–2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299252", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299360", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299453", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299520"], "description"=>"<div><p>Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (<em>Canis lupus</em>) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bucking", "wolf-dog", "europe", "hybridization", "dogs", "wolves"], "article_id"=>118999, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>39, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bucking_the_Trend_in_Wolf_Dog_Hybridization_First_Evidence_from_Europe_of_Hybridization_between_Female_Dogs_and_Male_Wolves/118999", "title"=>"Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 02:29:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566295"], "description"=>"<p>Colours: green – dogs, blue – wolves, red – hybrids. W – wolf, D – dog, Ehy – hybrids from Estonia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["joining", "paternal", "chromosome", "microsatellite", "dogs", "wolf-dog"], "article_id"=>236783, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_joining_network_of_paternal_lineages_based_on_analysis_of_seven_Y_chromosome_microsatellite_loci_showing_male_wolves_dogs_and_wolf_dog_hybrids_/236783", "title"=>"Median joining network of paternal lineages, based on analysis of seven Y chromosome microsatellite loci, showing male wolves, dogs and wolf-dog hybrids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:53:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565719"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis was based on 11 autosomal microsatellite loci using Structure v2.2, with the following parameters: <i>K</i> = 2 clusters; ‘Usepopinfo’ = 0 for all individuals (n = 103). Each vertical bar represents the membership coefficient (<i>q</i>) for each individual. The final eight bars on the right represent hybrids from Estonia (Ehy 1–6) and Latvia (Lhy 1–2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wolf-dog", "hybrid", "genotypes", "estonia", "latvia"], "article_id"=>236209, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_analysis_of_wolf_dog_and_wolf_dog_hybrid_genotypes_from_Estonia_and_Latvia_with_the_parameter_set_A_Table_2_/236209", "title"=>"Bayesian analysis of wolf, dog and wolf-dog hybrid genotypes from Estonia and Latvia with the ‘parameter set A’ (<b>Table 2</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:43:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566064"], "description"=>"<p>Colours: green – dogs, blue – wolves, red – hybrids. W – wolf, D – dog, Ehy (1–6) – six hybrids from Estonia, Lhy (1–2) – two hybrids from Latvia. Numbers of individuals are in parentheses (if more than one individual is represented by the haplotype). Filled circles represent median vectors (haplotypes not sampled or extinct). Short bars indicate single mutations; otherwise the number of mutations is presented (note that the number of mutations and the length of bars are not in proportion).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["joining", "maternal", "mtdna", "sequences", "dogs", "wolf-dog"], "article_id"=>236553, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_joining_network_of_maternal_lineages_based_on_mtDNA_control_region_sequences_1134_bp_showing_wolves_dogs_and_wolf_dog_hybrids_/236553", "title"=>"Median joining network of maternal lineages, based on mtDNA control region sequences (1134 bp), showing wolves, dogs and wolf-dog hybrids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:49:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566743"], "description"=>"<p>List of sampled wolf-dog hybrids from Estonia (Ehy) and Latvia (Lhy).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampled", "wolf-dog", "hybrids", "estonia", "latvia"], "article_id"=>237238, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_sampled_wolf_dog_hybrids_from_Estonia_Ehy_and_Latvia_Lhy_/237238", "title"=>"List of sampled wolf-dog hybrids from Estonia (Ehy) and Latvia (Lhy).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 02:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566206"], "description"=>"<p>Nodes with posterior probability values ≥0.80 are shown. Colours: green – dogs, blue – wolves, red – hybrids. Haplotypes representing more than one individual are numbered (circles 1–15). More detailed information about different haplotypes can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465#pone.0046465.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "dogs", "wolf-dog", "hybrids", "homologous", "sequences", "mtdna"], "article_id"=>236695, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>525, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_phylogenetic_tree_of_wolves_dogs_and_wolf_dog_hybrids_from_this_study_and_homologous_sequences_from_GenBank_based_on_the_analysis_of_mtDNA_control_region_sequences_1134_bp_/236695", "title"=>"Bayesian phylogenetic tree of wolves, dogs and wolf-dog hybrids (from this study and homologous sequences from GenBank) based on the analysis of mtDNA control region sequences (1134 bp).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:51:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565597"], "description"=>"<p>WOLVES - Estonian and Latvian wolves; HYBRIDS-EST – wolf-dog hybrids from Estonia; HYBRIDS-LAT – wolf-dog hybrids from Latvia. Two wolves shot from the same pack with hybrids are represented by green open circles (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correspondence", "autosomal", "microsatellite", "allele"], "article_id"=>236092, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factorial_correspondence_analysis_of_autosomal_microsatellite_allele_data_/236092", "title"=>"Factorial correspondence analysis of autosomal microsatellite allele data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:41:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565900"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis was based on 11 autosomal microsatellite loci using Structure v2.2 with the following parameters <i>K</i> = 2 clusters; ‘Usepopinfo’ = 1 for dogs and wolves, ‘Usepopinfo’ = 0 for 8 Estonian-Latvian hybrids. The final eight bars on the right represent hybrids from Estonia (Ehy 1–6) and Latvia (Lhy 1–2). Each vertical bar represents the membership coefficient (<i>q</i>) of an individual.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wolf-dog", "hybrid", "genotypes", "estonia", "latvia"], "article_id"=>236395, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_analysis_of_wolf_dog_and_wolf_dog_hybrid_genotypes_from_Estonia_and_Latvia_with_the_parameter_set_B_Table_2_/236395", "title"=>"Bayesian analysis of wolf, dog and wolf-dog hybrid genotypes from Estonia and Latvia with the ‘parameter set B’ (<b>Table 2</b>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:46:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/566667"], "description"=>"<p>Number of alleles (<i>N<sub>A</sub></i>), allelic richness independent of sample size (<i>A<sub>R</sub></i>), expected unbiased heterozygosity (<i>H<sub>Eunb</sub></i>), observed heterozygosity (<i>H<sub>O</sub></i>) and inbreeding estimator Wright's <i>F<sub>IS</sub></i> for Estonian and Latvian wolves and dogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alleles", "allelic", "richness", "unbiased", "heterozygosity", "observed", "inbreeding", "estimator", "estonian", "latvian", "wolves"], "article_id"=>237151, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Maris Hindrikson", "Peep Männil", "Janis Ozolins", "Andrzej Krzywinski", "Urmas Saarma"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046465.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_alleles_N_A_allelic_richness_independent_of_sample_size_A_R_expected_unbiased_heterozygosity_H_Eunb_observed_heterozygosity_H_O_and_inbreeding_estimator_Wright_s_F_IS_for_Estonian_and_Latvian_wolves_and_dogs_/237151", "title"=>"Number of alleles (<i>N<sub>A</sub></i>), allelic richness independent of sample size (<i>A<sub>R</sub></i>), expected unbiased heterozygosity (<i>H<sub>Eunb</sub></i>), observed heterozygosity (<i>H<sub>O</sub></i>) and inbreeding estimator Wright's <i>F<sub>IS</sub></i> for Estonian and Latvian wolves and dogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-03 01:59:11"}

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Relative Metric

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