Dogs (Canis familiaris) Evaluate Humans on the Basis of Direct Experiences Only
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{"title"=>"Dogs (Canis familiaris) Evaluate Humans on the Basis of Direct Experiences Only", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marie", "last_name"=>"Nitzschner", "scopus_author_id"=>"36601178500"}, {"first_name"=>"Alicia P.", "last_name"=>"Melis", "scopus_author_id"=>"12766059400"}, {"first_name"=>"Juliane", "last_name"=>"Kaminski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102702660"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Tomasello", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004816726"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84867299739", "pmid"=>"23056507", "pui"=>"365821737", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867299739", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046880", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"53a6050b-9960-3d16-8c7a-dec8dfc144c6", "abstract"=>"Reputation formation is a key component in the social interactions of many animal species. An evaluation of reputation is drawn from two principal sources: direct experience of an individual and indirect experience from observing that individual interacting with a third party. In the current study we investigated whether dogs use direct and/or indirect experience to choose between two human interactants. In the first experiment, subjects had direct interaction either with a \"nice\" human (who played with, talked to and stroked the dog) or with an \"ignoring\" experimenter who ignored the dog completely. Results showed that the dogs stayed longer close to the \"nice\" human. In a second experiment the dogs observed a \"nice\" or \"ignoring\" human interacting with another dog. This indirect experience, however, did not lead to a preference between the two humans. These results suggest that the dogs in our study evaluated humans solely on the basis of direct experience.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dogs-canis-familiaris-evaluate-humans-basis-direct-experiences-only", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>3, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563349"], "description"=>"<p>Set up in the experimental trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>233839, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marie Nitzschner", "Alicia P. Melis", "Juliane Kaminski", "Michael Tomasello"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046880.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Set_up_in_the_experimental_trials_/233839", "title"=>"Set up in the experimental trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 01:03:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563406"], "description"=>"<p>Figuer 2 displays medians and interquartiles of the average duration the dogs stayed in the proximity of an experimenter over all trials (in experiment 1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["duration", "spent", "experimenter"], "article_id"=>233897, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marie Nitzschner", "Alicia P. Melis", "Juliane Kaminski", "Michael Tomasello"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046880.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_duration_spent_next_to_each_experimenter_in_experiment_1_/233897", "title"=>"Average duration spent next to each experimenter in experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 01:04:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563642"], "description"=>"<p>Demonstration in experiment 2 (A nice experimenter, B ignoring experimenter).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ignoring"], "article_id"=>234138, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marie Nitzschner", "Alicia P. Melis", "Juliane Kaminski", "Michael Tomasello"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046880.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demonstration_in_experiment_2_A_nice_experimenter_B_ignoring_experimenter_/234138", "title"=>"Demonstration in experiment 2 (A nice experimenter, B ignoring experimenter).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 01:08:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/563792"], "description"=>"<p>Figure 4 displays medians, interquartiles and outliers of the average duration the dogs stayed in the proximity of an experimenter over all trials (in experiment 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["duration", "spent", "experimenter"], "article_id"=>234288, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marie Nitzschner", "Alicia P. Melis", "Juliane Kaminski", "Michael Tomasello"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046880.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_duration_spent_next_to_each_experimenter_in_experiment_2_/234288", "title"=>"Average duration spent next to each experimenter in experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-08 01:11:28"}

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Relative Metric

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