Extremely Rare Interbreeding Events Can Explain Neanderthal DNA in Living Humans
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{"title"=>"Extremely Rare Interbreeding Events Can Explain Neanderthal DNA in Living Humans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Armando G M", "last_name"=>"Neves", "scopus_author_id"=>"8875124500"}, {"first_name"=>"Maurizio", "last_name"=>"Serva", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003773292"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868112160", "sgr"=>"84868112160", "issn"=>"19326203", "arxiv"=>"1103.4621", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047076", "pmid"=>"23112810", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"365952104"}, "id"=>"68995409-e045-3261-95f0-ad3cc7f28c53", "abstract"=>"Considering the recent experimental discovery of Green et al that present-day non-Africans have 1 to [Formula: see text] of their nuclear DNA of Neanderthal origin, we propose here a model which is able to quantify the genetic interbreeding between two subpopulations with equal fitness, living in the same geographic region. The model consists of a solvable system of deterministic ordinary differential equations containing as a stochastic ingredient a realization of the neutral Wright-Fisher process. By simulating the stochastic part of the model we are able to apply it to the interbreeding of the African ancestors of Eurasians and Middle Eastern Neanderthal subpopulations and estimate the only parameter of the model, which is the number of individuals per generation exchanged between subpopulations. Our results indicate that the amount of Neanderthal DNA in living non-Africans can be explained with maximum probability by the exchange of a single pair of individuals between the subpopulations at each 77 generations, but larger exchange frequencies are also allowed with sizeable probability. The results are compatible with a long coexistence time of 130,000 years, a total interbreeding population of order [Formula: see text] individuals, and with all living humans being descendants of Africans both for mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extremely-rare-interbreeding-events-explain-neanderthal-dna-living-humans", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44, "Arts and Humanities"=>24, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>24}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554067"], "description"=>"<p>We use the same sample of 790 histories used in Fig. 4 for obtaining the probability density for the final value of conditioned to MEN extinction and 1 to 4% Neanderthal DNA in AAE. The mean final value of in the sample is 0.33.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african", "dna"], "article_id"=>224569, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Genetics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Armando G. M. Neves", "Maurizio Serva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047076.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introgression_of_African_DNA_into_MEN_/224569", "title"=>"Introgression of African DNA into MEN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:18:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553958"], "description"=>"<p>We show here the probability density that the final value of is in the experimental interval 0.96–0.99 as a function of . The plot was built by obtaining one million “successful” pairs such that subpopulation 2 is extinct and the final value of – obtained by solving (1) – lies in the experimental interval. These pairs were obtained out of a total of around 140 million simulated Wright-Fisher paths with random uniformly distributed between 0 and 0.8 and uniformly distributed between 0 and 2. For the successful pairs we then computed the fraction associated to any given . In the inset we plot the probability density for the final values of for three different values of . The densities are empirically determined by simulating 400,000 Wright-Fisher paths with random uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and selecting the histories in which subpopulation 2 is extinct. The empty dots (blue) are data for , the full dots (purple) are data for and the full curve (black) are for .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probability"], "article_id"=>224458, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Genetics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Armando G. M. Neves", "Maurizio Serva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047076.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_probability_density_for_/224458", "title"=>"The probability density for .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553858"], "description"=>"<p>For two different histories and two different values of we plot the solutions of (1). In both plots, the black dotted curve represents . The left plot corresponds to a history in which subpopulation 2 is rapidly extinct, while the right plot to a history in which extinction of population 2 occurs after an initial period in which subpopulation sizes oscillate. In both pictures we represent a situation with (full lines) and another with (dashed lines). In each picture the upper (red) lines correspond to and the lower (blue) lines to . Notice that in these examples the allelic fractions of the subpopulations become nearly equal before extinction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["histories"], "article_id"=>224365, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Genetics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Armando G. M. Neves", "Maurizio Serva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047076.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_role_of_histories_and_of_the_parameter_/224365", "title"=>"The role of histories and of the parameter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:17:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553906"], "description"=>"<p>For a single Wright-Fisher path plotted in brown dots and for we compare the theoretical and simulated values of and . In both plots, the theoretical values are shown in full lines. The upper (blue) line corresponds to and the lower (red) line corresponds to .The corresponding simulated values are shown respectively as blue and red dots. The left graph shows the simulated values obtained by a single simulation, whereas the right graph shows the averages of 100 simulations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulated"], "article_id"=>224410, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Genetics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Armando G. M. Neves", "Maurizio Serva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047076.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_theoretical_and_simulated_values_for_and_/224410", "title"=>"Comparison between theoretical and simulated values for and .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:17:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554020"], "description"=>"<p>We have produced a large set of Wright-Fisher paths with random and random subject to . From this set we selected a sample of the 790 histories in which subpopulation 2 was extinct and such that the final value of lied in the experimental interval. Both plots in this figure refer to this sample. In the left we show the correlation between and the time (in generations divided by ) for Neanderthal extinction. The mean extinction time in the sample is 0.58. In the right we plot the correlation between and . Notice that the number of histories with in the experimental interval increases with , and that larger values of are correlated with large values of .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extinction"], "article_id"=>224521, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Genetics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Armando G. M. Neves", "Maurizio Serva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047076.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_and_extinction_time_and_between_and_/224521", "title"=>"Correlations between and extinction time and between and .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:18:06"}

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Relative Metric

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