The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008
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{"title"=>"The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989-2008", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Lightwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508259391"}, {"first_name"=>"Stanton A.", "last_name"=>"Glantz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103220592"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368342509", "sgr"=>"84873925353", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23418411", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873925353", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047145", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"3a2d3d50-23ab-3a65-a939-41ff29b59e1c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND\\n\\nPrevious research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program.\\n\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS\\n\\nUsing state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending.\\n\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE\\n\\nBetween FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-california-tobacco-control-program-smoking-prevalence-cigarette-consumption-healthcare-costs-1", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489056"], "description"=>"<p>California current smoking prevalence, middle panel: California cigarette consumption per smoker, bottom panel: California per capita healthcare expenditures using the NIPA measure. Black circles: observed, black line: predictions with California tobacco control program (using historical data on tobacco control funding), gray line: predictions without California tobacco control program (California tobacco control funding set to zero).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["smoker", "capita", "healthcare", "expenditures", "california"], "article_id"=>159576, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["James Lightwood", "Stanton A. Glantz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_current_smoking_cigarette_consumption_per_smoker_and_per_capita_healthcare_expenditures_with_and_without_California_tobacco_control_funding_Top_panel_/159576", "title"=>"Prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker and per capita healthcare expenditures with and without California tobacco control funding, Top panel:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 02:39:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489194"], "description"=>"<p>Annual savings in total personal healthcare expenditures in California attributable to the California Tobacco Control Program, billions of 2010 dollars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["savings", "healthcare", "expenditures", "california", "attributable", "billions", "2010"], "article_id"=>159709, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["James Lightwood", "Stanton A. Glantz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_savings_in_total_personal_healthcare_expenditures_in_California_attributable_to_the_California_Tobacco_Control_Program_billions_of_2010_dollars_/159709", "title"=>"Annual savings in total personal healthcare expenditures in California attributable to the California Tobacco Control Program, billions of 2010 dollars.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 02:41:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489268"], "description"=>"*<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145#pone.0047145.e003\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 3</a> with <i>h<sub>CA, t</sub></i> as dependent variable instead of <i>n<sub>CA, t</sub></i> and <i>h<sub>c, t</sub></i> as explanatory variable instead of <i>n<sub>c, t</sub></i>.</p>†<p>significant at the 5% level.</p><p><i>r<sub>1</sub></i>: first order autocorrelation coefficient.</p><p><i>prev<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Prevalence of current smoking in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>,(percentage points).</p><p><i>cps<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Cigarettes consumption per current smoker in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (packs/year per smoker).</p><p><i>EC<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Cumulative per capita funding in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (dollars).</p><p><i>p<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Price per pack of cigarettes in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (dollars).</p><p><i>y<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Per capita personal income in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (thousands of dollars).</p><p><i>n<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Per capita healthcare expenditures in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (thousands of dollars).</p><p><i>h<sub>j, t</sub></i>: Per capita healthcare expenditures in population <i>j</i>, for California and control states in year <i>t</i>, (thousands of dollars).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["california", "smoking", "cigarettes", "capita", "healthcare"], "article_id"=>159791, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["James Lightwood", "Stanton A. Glantz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_California_smoking_prevalence_cigarettes_per_capita_and_per_capita_healthcare_expenditures_/159791", "title"=>"Estimated California smoking prevalence, cigarettes per capita, and per capita healthcare expenditures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 02:43:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488950"], "description"=>"<p>Top panel: Difference between California and control state current smoking prevalence (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145#pone.0047145.e001\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 1</a>), middle panel: difference between California and control state cigarette consumption per smoker (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145#pone.0047145.e002\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 2</a>), bottom panel: California per capita healthcare expenditures using the NIPA measure (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145#pone.0047145.e003\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 3</a>). Black circles: observed, solid line: in-sample predictions from regression estimates, dashed lines: 95 percent forecast confidence intervals for prediction of individual observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["smoking", "smoker", "capita", "healthcare"], "article_id"=>159473, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["James Lightwood", "Stanton A. Glantz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_and_predicted_smoking_prevalence_cigarette_consumption_per_smoker_and_per_capita_healthcare_expenditures_/159473", "title"=>"Observed and predicted smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption per smoker and per capita healthcare expenditures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 02:37:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/484960", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/484970"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["california", "smoking", "healthcare"], "article_id"=>156719, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["James Lightwood", "Stanton A. Glantz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047145.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Effect_of_the_California_Tobacco_Control_Program_on_Smoking_Prevalence_Cigarette_Consumption_and_Healthcare_Costs_1989_2008__/156719", "title"=>"The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 01:51:59"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"19", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"100", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"346", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"69", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Information technology", "average_usage"=>[265, 446, 547, 656, 751, 809, 898, 978, 1077, 1216, 1295, 1357, 1403, 1469]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[263, 456, 571, 673, 776, 866, 955, 1040, 1132, 1217, 1310, 1391, 1454]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Science policy/Research funding", "average_usage"=>[727, 1138, 1313, 1446, 1601, 1737, 1873, 2038, 2174, 2329, 2462, 2585, 2697, 2806]}]}
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