The Lung Microbiome in Moderate and Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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{"title"=>"The Lung Microbiome in Moderate and Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexa A.", "last_name"=>"Pragman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506451959"}, {"first_name"=>"Hyeun Bum", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"55784908300"}, {"first_name"=>"Cavan S.", "last_name"=>"Reilly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103120251"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"Wendt", "scopus_author_id"=>"35353492200"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard E.", "last_name"=>"Isaacson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102914353"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84867427320", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047305", "pui"=>"365840859", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23071781", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867427320"}, "id"=>"ffd905fb-3d0b-3f28-b779-0188e727d406", "abstract"=>"Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract contributes to approximately 50% of COPD exacerbations. Even during periods of stable lung function, the lung harbors a community of bacteria, termed the microbiome. The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. The COPD lung microbiome, like the healthy lung microbiome, appears to reflect microaspiration of oral microflora. Here we describe the COPD lung microbiome of 22 patients with Moderate or Severe COPD compared to 10 healthy control patients. The composition of the lung microbiomes was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sequences were analyzed using mothur, Ribosomal Database Project, Fast UniFrac, and Metastats. Our results showed a significant increase in microbial diversity with the development of COPD. The main phyla in all samples were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Principal coordinate analyses demonstrated separation of control and COPD samples, but samples did not cluster based on disease severity. However, samples did cluster based on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators. Metastats analyses demonstrated an increased abundance of several oral bacteria in COPD samples.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lung-microbiome-moderate-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease", "reader_count"=>146, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>37, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>37}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>16}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Korea (South)"=>1, "United States"=>4, "China"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "India"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297380", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297416", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297437"], "description"=>"<div><p>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract contributes to approximately 50% of COPD exacerbations. Even during periods of stable lung function, the lung harbors a community of bacteria, termed the microbiome. The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. The COPD lung microbiome, like the healthy lung microbiome, appears to reflect microaspiration of oral microflora. Here we describe the COPD lung microbiome of 22 patients with Moderate or Severe COPD compared to 10 healthy control patients. The composition of the lung microbiomes was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sequences were analyzed using mothur, Ribosomal Database Project, Fast UniFrac, and Metastats. Our results showed a significant increase in microbial diversity with the development of COPD. The main phyla in all samples were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Principal coordinate analyses demonstrated separation of control and COPD samples, but samples did not cluster based on disease severity. However, samples did cluster based on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators. Metastats analyses demonstrated an increased abundance of several oral bacteria in COPD samples.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiome", "obstructive", "pulmonary"], "article_id"=>118613, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Alexa A. Pragman", "Hyeun Bum Kim", "Cavan S. Reilly", "Christine Wendt", "Richard E. Isaacson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Lung_Microbiome_in_Moderate_and_Severe_Chronic_Obstructive_Pulmonary_Disease/118613", "title"=>"The Lung Microbiome in Moderate and Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-11 02:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560162"], "description"=>"<p>All sequences were submitted to RDP Classifier for taxonomic identification with a bootstrap cutoff of 50%. Taxonomic results at the phylum level are displayed for each sample with Control samples at the bottom, Moderate COPD samples in the middle, and Severe COPD samples at the top. The legend is organized from most (top) to least abundant (bottom) phyla.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylum"], "article_id"=>230653, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Alexa A. Pragman", "Hyeun Bum Kim", "Cavan S. Reilly", "Christine Wendt", "Richard E. Isaacson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taxonomic_Identification_at_the_Phylum_Level_/230653", "title"=>"Taxonomic Identification at the Phylum Level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-11 00:10:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560276"], "description"=>"<p>Principal coordinate analysis was performed using mothur and Fast UniFrac, and the results for principal coordinates 1 and 2 are shown. A. Control, Moderate COPD, and Severe COPD. Control samples (red) cluster separately from Moderate COPD (blue) and Severe COPD (yellow) samples. Moderate and Severe COPD samples do not cluster separately. Seven COPD samples that separate the most from the control samples are circled and designated “left lower quadrant” (LLQ) samples for further analysis. B. Smokers and Non-Smokers. Smokers (blue) do not cluster separately from Non-Smokers (red). All of the COPD patients had been non-smokers for at least 6 months prior to bronchoscopy. C. Inhaled Corticosteroid Users and Non-Users. Inhaled corticosteroid users (blue, 14 of 22 COPD patients) are more likely to cluster near the intersection of principal coordinates 1 and 2 than non-users (red). D. Inhaled Bronchodilator Users and Non-Users. Inhaled bronchodilator users (blue, 16 of 22 COPD patients) are more likely to cluster near the intersection of principal coordinates 1 and 2 than non-users (red). All patients who received inhaled corticosteroids also received inhaled bronchodilators.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["demonstrates", "clustering", "copd", "inhaled", "corticosteroid", "bronchodilator"], "article_id"=>230768, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Alexa A. Pragman", "Hyeun Bum Kim", "Cavan S. Reilly", "Christine Wendt", "Richard E. Isaacson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Coordinate_Analysis_Demonstrates_Clustering_of_COPD_Samples_Inhaled_Corticosteroid_Users_and_Inhaled_Bronchodilator_Users_/230768", "title"=>"Principal Coordinate Analysis Demonstrates Clustering of COPD Samples, Inhaled Corticosteroid Users, and Inhaled Bronchodilator Users.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-11 00:12:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560377"], "description"=>"*<p>All COPD patients were non-smokers for at least 6 months prior to study entry.</p>#<p>Fewer sequences were obtained from COPD samples than from Control samples (<i>p</i> = 0.0326); this association was driven by the lower number of sequences in the Severe COPD (compared to Moderate COPD) group. This was not associated with a difference in the number of OTUs obtained.</p>†<p>COPD samples were significantly more diverse than Control Samples (<i>p</i> = 0.0082 Shannon, <i>p</i> = 0.0167 Simpson). This severity effect disappears when we control for age.</p>§<p>Moderate COPD patients are older than Severe COPD patients (<i>p</i> = 0.0241).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "sequencing"], "article_id"=>230870, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Alexa A. Pragman", "Hyeun Bum Kim", "Cavan S. Reilly", "Christine Wendt", "Richard E. Isaacson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patient_Characteristics_and_Sequencing_Results_/230870", "title"=>"Patient Characteristics and Sequencing Results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-11 00:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560405"], "description"=>"A<p>Change in abundance in COPD (compared to Control).</p>B<p>Change in abundance in 14 subjects using inhaled corticosteroids (compared to all other COPD samples and controls).</p>C<p>Change in abundance in 16 subjects using inhaled bronchodilators (compared to all other COPD samples and controls).</p>D<p>Change in abundance in 7 COPD samples in the left lower quadrant (compared to all other COPD samples and controls).</p><p><b>Bolded Taxa</b> were differentially expressed in Severe COPD (compared to Moderate COPD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differential"], "article_id"=>230903, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Alexa A. Pragman", "Hyeun Bum Kim", "Cavan S. Reilly", "Christine Wendt", "Richard E. Isaacson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047305.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metastats_Analysis_of_Differential_Abundance_/230903", "title"=>"Metastats Analysis of Differential Abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-11 00:15:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"44", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"41", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"114", "pdf"=>"53", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

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