Mannose-Binding Lectin Regulates Host Resistance and Pathology during Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi
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{"title"=>"Mannose-binding lectin regulates host resistance and pathology during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Antonio Gigliotti", "last_name"=>"Rothfuchs", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506060893"}, {"first_name"=>"Ester", "last_name"=>"Roffê", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506508808"}, {"first_name"=>"Amanda", "last_name"=>"Gibson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36614229100"}, {"first_name"=>"Allen W.", "last_name"=>"Cheever", "scopus_author_id"=>"35453848800"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Alan B.", "last_name"=>"Ezekowitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"35459212200"}, {"first_name"=>"Kazue", "last_name"=>"Takahashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8586134200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mario", "last_name"=>"Steindel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004391944"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Sher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202817766"}, {"first_name"=>"André", "last_name"=>"Báfica", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602267400"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604820671", "sgr"=>"84883715816", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23139754", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84883715816", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047835"}, "id"=>"caac0d6a-85b0-34bd-ba90-e74bf6c95da4", "abstract"=>"Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a humoral pattern-recognition molecule important for host defense. Although recent genetic studies suggest an involvement of MBL/MASP2-associated pathways in Chagas' disease, it is currently unknown whether MBL plays a role in host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. In this study we employed MBL(-/-) mice to assess the role of MBL in resistance to experimental infection with T. cruzi. T. cruzi infection enhanced tissue expression of MBL both at the mRNA and protein level. Similarly, symptomatic acute Chagas' disease patients displayed increased serum concentrations of MBL compared to patients with indeterminate, asymptomatic forms of the disease. Furthermore, increased parasite loads in the blood and/or tissue were observed in MBL(-/-) mice compared to WT controls. This was associated with reduced systemic levels of IL-12/23p40 in MBL(-/-) mice. Importantly, MBL(-/-) mice infected with a cardiotropic strain of T. cruzi displayed increased myocarditis and cardiac fibrosis compared to WT controls. The latter was accompanied by elevated hydroxyproline content and mRNA levels of collagen-1 and -6 in the heart. These observations point to a previously unappreciated role for MBL in regulating host resistance and cardiac inflammation during infection with a major human pathogen.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mannosebinding-lectin-regulates-host-resistance-pathology-during-experimental-infection-trypanosoma-1", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/547748"], "description"=>"<p>WT and MyD88<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with trypomastigotes of the Y strain of <i>T. cruzi</i> and 9 days after infection, MBL-A and MBL-C mRNA accumulation was determined in spleens from infected and uninfected animals by real-time PCR (A). Detection of MBL-C protein was also performed by immunofluorescence microscopy in splenic sections obtained from WT mice infected as above (B). Micrograph shows MBL-C (red) and B220 (blue) staining in both the red (RP) and white pulp (WP). Scale bar, 100 µm. Infected MBL<sup>−/−</sup> spleens were included as a control. All panels shown are representative of 2 independent experiments using 3 to 4 mice per group. Bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). Sera from patients with acute, chronic or indeterminate Chagas’ disease were assayed for MBL as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Material and Methods</a> (C). *, Indicates statistically significant differences between acute vs indeterminate Chagas’ disease groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induces", "mbl"], "article_id"=>218228, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs", "Ester Roffê", "Amanda Gibson", "Allen W. Cheever", "R. Alan B. Ezekowitz", "Kazue Takahashi", "Mário Steindel", "Alan Sher", "Andre Bafica"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_cruzi_infection_induces_MBL_expression_in_vivo_/218228", "title"=>"<i>T. cruzi</i> infection induces MBL expression <i>in vivo</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:44:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/547881"], "description"=>"<p>WT or MBL<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with trypomastigotes of the reticulotropic, Y strain of <i>T. cruzi</i> and monitored daily for parasitemia and mortality (A). Symbols represent the mean of 10 animals per group. At the indicated time points after infection, levels of parasite DNA in the spleen were quantified by real-time PCR (B). Serum levels of IL-12/23p40 and IFN-γ were determined by ELISA 8 days after infection (C). Each symbol in (B) and (C) corresponds to an individual animal, dashed lines the mean of each group and solid lines the standard error of the mean (SEM). The experiments shown are representative of at least two performed. *, Indicates statistically significant differences between groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mbl"], "article_id"=>218369, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs", "Ester Roffê", "Amanda Gibson", "Allen W. Cheever", "R. Alan B. Ezekowitz", "Kazue Takahashi", "Mário Steindel", "Alan Sher", "Andre Bafica"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Role_of_MBL_in_host_resistance_to_T_cruzi_Y_strain_infection_/218369", "title"=>"Role of MBL in host resistance to <i>T. cruzi</i> Y strain infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:45:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/548030"], "description"=>"<p>WT or MBL<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with trypomastigotes of the cardiotropic, Colombiana strain of <i>T. cruzi</i> and monitored weekly for parasitemia and mortality (A). Symbols represent the mean of 9 to 10 animals per group. 5 wks after infection, levels of parasite DNA in the heart were quantified by real-time PCR (B) and serum levels of IL-12/23p40 and IFN-γ determined by ELISA (C). Each symbol in (B) and (C) corresponds to an individual animal, dashed lines the mean of each group and solid lines the standard error of the mean (SEM). The experiments shown are representative of two performed. *, Indicates statistically significant differences between groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mbl", "colombiana"], "article_id"=>218518, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs", "Ester Roffê", "Amanda Gibson", "Allen W. Cheever", "R. Alan B. Ezekowitz", "Kazue Takahashi", "Mário Steindel", "Alan Sher", "Andre Bafica"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Role_of_MBL_in_host_resistance_to_T_cruzi_Colombiana_strain_infection_/218518", "title"=>"Role of MBL in host resistance to <i>T. cruzi</i> Colombiana strain infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:46:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/548139"], "description"=>"<p>WT and MBL<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with trypomastigotes of the Colombiana strain of <i>T. cruzi</i> and hearts from these animals obtained 5 weeks after infection. Hearts were formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, stained with H&E or Gomori’s trichrome and scored for pathology and fibrosis, respectively, as described under <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> (A). Right panels show micrographs of Gomori’s trichrome staining for each group. Bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). Uninfected, or WT and MBL<sup>−/−</sup> mice infected as in (A) were harvested 5 wks later for determination of hydroxyproline content in total heart (B). Each symbol corresponds to an individual animal, dashed lines represent the mean of each group and solid lines the standard error of the mean (SEM). Heart samples from uninfected controls or from WT and MBL<sup>−/−</sup> mice infected as in (A) were obtained and mRNA accumulation of Collagen-1, -3 and -6 determined by real-time PCR (C). The experiments shown are representative of two performed. *, Indicates statistically significant differences between infected WT and MBL<sup>−/−</sup> groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cardiac", "pathology", "fibrosis", "infected", "colombiana"], "article_id"=>218619, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Molecular Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs", "Ester Roffê", "Amanda Gibson", "Allen W. Cheever", "R. Alan B. Ezekowitz", "Kazue Takahashi", "Mário Steindel", "Alan Sher", "Andre Bafica"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047835.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enhanced_cardiac_pathology_and_fibrosis_in_MBL_8722_8722_infected_with_T_cruzi_Colombiana_strain_/218619", "title"=>"Enhanced cardiac pathology and fibrosis in MBL<sup>−/−</sup> infected with <i>T.</i><i>cruzi</i> Colombiana strain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:47:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

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