How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix
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{"title"=>"How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alberto", "last_name"=>"Vailati", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004028280"}, {"first_name"=>"Luca", "last_name"=>"Zinnato", "scopus_author_id"=>"55441272200"}, {"first_name"=>"Roberto", "last_name"=>"Cerbino", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508220772"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365952193", "sgr"=>"84868104380", "pmid"=>"23112861", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868104380", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047867", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"961757fd-81e7-31e6-b72b-cf6db8b2cedb", "abstract"=>"Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/archer-fish-achieve-powerful-impact-hydrodynamic-instability-pulsed-jet-toxotes-jaculatrix", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>15, "Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>7, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>15}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>2, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554465"], "description"=>"<p>(A) original image. (B) background. (C) background subtraction. (D) oversampling 4×. (E) thresholding and binarization. Arrows mark the estimated position of the neckline. (F) projection of the head of the jet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>224961, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alberto Vailati", "Luca Zinnato", "Roberto Cerbino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Image_processing_procedure_/224961", "title"=>"Image processing procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:22:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554227"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time evolution of the velocity, (B) of the acceleration, (C) of the volume, and (D) of the axial length of the head of the jet. Data refer to the trajectories reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone-0047867-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>H and the same color coding is adopted here. Continuous lines represent averages on all sequences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>224726, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alberto Vailati", "Luca Zinnato", "Roberto Cerbino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinematics_of_the_head_of_the_jet_/224726", "title"=>"Kinematics of the head of the jet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:18:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554346"], "description"=>"<p>(A) time evolution of the maximum average force that the jet head can exert at the impact. The shaded area indicates the range of typical anchoring forces of insects such as flies, bugs and beetles <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone.0047867-Stork1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone.0047867-Gorb2\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>. (B) time evolution of the mass-specific power that would be required by the muscles involved in the emission of the jet to accelerate the head in the absence of the hydrodynamic amplification process discussed here. (C) time evolution of the mass-specific power transfereed instantaneously to the head of the jet. The horizontal dashed line in panels (B) and (C) represents the limit of 500 W/kg for a vertebrate muscle <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone.0047867-WeisFogh1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone.0047867-Frith1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>. Data refer to the trajectories reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone-0047867-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>H and the same color coding is adopted here. Solid lines in (A), (B) and (C) represent averages on all sequences. (D) Distribution of the mass-specific power at the impact. The median of the distribution is 2950 W/kg. (E) The motion of a cylindrical section of the jet is shown for three time instants separated by Δ<i>t</i>. The acceleration of the liquid at the orifice determines a propagation velocity <i>u</i> of the leading face smaller than the velocity <i>u</i> +Δ<i>u</i> of the trailing face. The velocity difference Δ<i>u</i> determines a shrinking of the length of the section and, in turn, the divergence of its radius.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>224843, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alberto Vailati", "Luca Zinnato", "Roberto Cerbino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Force_and_power_at_the_head_of_the_jet_/224843", "title"=>"Force and power at the head of the jet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:20:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554057"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) acceleration phase. (D–E) nearly ballistic phase. (F) impact. (G) progressive increase of the size of the head of the jet during the flight to the prey. The dashed line outlines the linear trajectory of the head of the jet. The horizontal band free of data at the mid-height of the figures delimits the region where the observation of the jet was prevented by the presence of a slit needed to achieve a lateral view of the jet <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867#pone.0047867-Timmermans2\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>. (H) trajectories of the head of the jet. Open points correspond to interpolated data in the region where the observation of the jet was prevented by the slit. All the data are compatible with a linear trajectory, with correlation coefficients in the range 0.996222<0.99994. (I) interpolation of the head of the jet with ellipsoids. Top: projection of the head of the jet. Middle: interpolating prolate ellipsoids. Bottom: superposition of the projection and the ellipsoids. (J) distribution of shooting angles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biophysics", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>224553, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alberto Vailati", "Luca Zinnato", "Roberto Cerbino"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Propagation_of_the_jet_/224553", "title"=>"Propagation of the jet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 01:15:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295285", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295318"], "description"=>"<div><p>Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of <em>Toxotes jaculatrix</em>. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["archer", "hydrodynamic", "instability", "pulsed"], "article_id"=>118159, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alberto Vailati", "Luca Zinnato", "Roberto Cerbino"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047867.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/How_Archer_Fish_Achieve_a_Powerful_Impact_Hydrodynamic_Instability_of_a_Pulsed_Jet_in_Toxotes_jaculatrix__/118159", "title"=>"How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in <em>Toxotes jaculatrix</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-24 02:15:59"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Community ecology", "average_usage"=>[362, 549, 647, 738, 832, 917, 983, 1076, 1146, 1220, 1297, 1375, 1422]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[347, 547, 641, 742, 836, 927, 1016, 1099, 1184, 1267, 1348, 1418, 1484, 1555, 1631, 1705, 1788, 1843, 1917, 1985, 2052, 2115, 2190, 2258, 2333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 506, 616, 712, 799, 879, 968, 1052, 1134, 1212, 1284, 1357, 1427, 1494, 1557, 1621, 1689, 1756, 1823, 1883, 1944, 1997, 2056, 2118, 2171]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[298, 476, 578, 665, 743, 821, 891, 962, 1036, 1108, 1174, 1240, 1312, 1371, 1430, 1494, 1551, 1609, 1673, 1736, 1795, 1857, 1913, 1976, 2035]}]}
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