Influence of Spatial Resolution on Space-Time Disease Cluster Detection
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{"title"=>"Influence of Spatial Resolution on Space-Time Disease Cluster Detection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen G.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405933921"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Kulldorff", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004233391"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365952148", "sgr"=>"84868100086", "pmid"=>"23110167", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868100086", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0048036", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"fdd9f314-337d-34ff-bbf5-e60f0f2c2162", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Utilizing highly precise spatial resolutions within disease outbreak detection, such as the patients' address, is most desirable as this provides the actual residential location of the infected individual(s). However, this level of precision is not always readily available or only available for purchase, and when utilized, increases the risk of exposing protected health information. Aggregating data to less precise scales (e.g., ZIP code or county centroids) may mitigate this risk but at the expense of potentially masking smaller isolated high risk areas. METHODS To experimentally examine the effect of spatial data resolution on space-time cluster detection, we extracted administrative medical claims data for 122500 viral lung episodes occurring during 2007-2010 in Tennessee. We generated 10000 spatial datasets with varying cluster location, size and intensity at the address-level. To represent spatial data aggregation (i.e., reduced resolution), we then created 10000 corresponding datasets both at the ZIP code and county level for a total of 30000 datasets. Using the space-time permutation scan statistic and the SaTScan™ cluster software, we evaluated statistical power, sensitivity and positive predictive values of outbreak detection when using exact address locations compared to ZIP code and county level aggregations. RESULTS The power to detect disease outbreaks did not largely diminish when using spatially aggregated data compared to more precise address information. However, aggregations negatively impacted the ability to more accurately determine the exact spatial location of the outbreak, particularly in smaller clusters (<800 km²). CONCLUSIONS Spatial aggregations do not necessitate a loss of power or sensitivity; rather, the relationship is more complex and involves simultaneously considering relative risk within the cluster and cluster size. The likelihood of spatially over-estimating outbreaks by including geographical areas outside the actual disease cluster increases with aggregated data.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influence-spatial-resolution-spacetime-disease-cluster-detection", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Mathematics"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554505"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of spatial resolution on power to detect significant space-time clusters at significance level α = 0.05 for varying sizes of cluster radii of 0–16 km (A), 17–32 km (B) and 33–48 km (C). Each line represents disease case data aggregated to different spatial resolutions – the address level (solid line with solid squares), the ZIP code level (dashed line with open squares) and county level (dotted line with triangles). Relative risk (abscissa x-axis) describes the intensity of the artificially created clusters, where RR = 1 indicates the risk of a disease case occurring inside the cluster area is equivalent to that of occurring outside the cluster area (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036#pone-0048036-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). RR = 10 indicates risk is 10 times higher inside the cluster area relative to outside the area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "space-time"], "article_id"=>225000, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen G. Jones", "Martin Kulldorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_spatial_resolution_on_power_to_detect_significant_space_time_clusters_/225000", "title"=>"Effect of spatial resolution on power to detect significant space-time clusters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:20:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554679"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of spatial resolution on sensitivity, defined as the proportion of artificial observations included within the detected significant clusters for varying sizes of cluster radii of 0–16 km (A), 17–32 km (B) and 33–48 km (C). Each line represents disease case data aggregated to different spatial resolutions – the address level (solid line with solid squares), the ZIP code level (dashed line with open squares) and county level (dotted line with triangles). Relative risk (abscissa x-axis) describes the intensity of the artificially created clusters, where RR = 1 indicates the risk of a disease case occurring inside the cluster area is equivalent to that of occurring outside the cluster area (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036#pone-0048036-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). RR = 10 indicates risk is 10 times higher inside the cluster area relative to outside the area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial"], "article_id"=>225182, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen G. Jones", "Martin Kulldorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_spatial_resolution_on_sensitivity_/225182", "title"=>"Effect of spatial resolution on sensitivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554603"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of spatial resolution on power to detect significant space-time clusters accounting for spatial precision for varying sizes of cluster radii of 0–16 km (A), 17–32 km (B) and 33–48 km (C). Each line represents disease case data aggregated to different spatial resolutions – the address level (solid line with solid squares), the ZIP code level (dashed line with open squares) and county level (dotted line with triangles). Relative risk (abscissa x-axis) describes the intensity of the artificially created clusters, where RR = 1 indicates the risk of a disease case occurring inside the cluster area is equivalent to that of occurring outside the cluster area (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036#pone-0048036-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). RR = 10 indicates risk is 10 times higher inside the cluster area relative to outside the area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "space-time", "clusters"], "article_id"=>225100, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen G. Jones", "Martin Kulldorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_spatial_resolution_on_power_to_detect_significant_space_time_clusters_accounting_for_spatial_precision_/225100", "title"=>"Effect of spatial resolution on power to detect significant space-time clusters accounting for spatial precision.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:21:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554419"], "description"=>"<p>Example of a simulated dataset with an artificial cluster area (box) containing <i>N<sub>t</sub></i> treatment cases (black dots) and surrounding <i>N<sub>c</sub></i> control cases (grey dots) at the address level. Black squares with inscribed dots indicate ZIP code centroids to which address level cases would be spatially aggregated. Note: <i>N<sub>c</sub></i> cases drawn from underlying population of cases to retain actual spatial location and event date is randomized. <i>N<sub>t</sub></i> cases are randomly located within the cluster box area and event date is forced into a 3-month time period. Number of <i>N<sub>t</sub></i> cases is calculated as a function of the underlying at-risk population within the cluster box area and randomly chosen relative risk value.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulated", "dataset", "containing", "artificially", "created", "infectious"], "article_id"=>224913, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen G. Jones", "Martin Kulldorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_simulated_dataset_containing_an_artificially_created_infectious_disease_cluster_/224913", "title"=>"Example of a simulated dataset containing an artificially created infectious disease cluster.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:20:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/554763"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of spatial resolution on positive predictive value (PPV), defined as the proportion of observations in the detected significant clusters and of the artificial cluster for varying sizes of cluster radii of 0–16 km (A), 17–32 km (B) and 33–48 km (C). Each line represents disease case data aggregated to different spatial resolutions – the address level (solid line with solid squares), the ZIP code level (dashed line with open squares) and county level (dotted line with triangles). Relative risk (abscissa x-axis) describes the intensity of the artificially created clusters, where RR = 1 indicates the risk of a disease case occurring inside the cluster area is equivalent to that of occurring outside the cluster area (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036#pone-0048036-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). RR = 10 indicates risk is 10 times higher inside the cluster area relative to outside the area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "predictive"], "article_id"=>225263, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen G. Jones", "Martin Kulldorff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048036.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_spatial_resolution_on_positive_predictive_value_PPV_/225263", "title"=>"Effect of spatial resolution on positive predictive value (PPV).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:22:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[318, 557, 682, 789, 871, 969, 1067, 1153, 1246, 1337, 1418, 1488, 1573, 1633, 1695, 1767, 1835, 1928, 1974, 2020, 2082, 2139, 2202, 2263, 2341]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[328, 580, 713, 821, 914, 1012, 1107, 1202, 1293, 1381, 1477, 1551, 1633, 1694, 1769, 1847, 1917, 1986, 2056, 2121, 2194, 2267, 2329, 2410, 2461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 506, 616, 712, 799, 879, 968, 1052, 1134, 1212, 1284, 1357, 1427, 1494, 1557, 1621, 1689, 1756, 1823, 1883, 1944, 1997, 2056, 2118, 2171]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[325, 522, 627, 718, 804, 884, 969, 1052, 1131, 1207, 1277, 1346, 1415, 1478, 1542, 1605, 1663, 1723, 1776, 1839, 1895, 1955, 2008, 2066, 2123]}]}
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