When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math
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{"title"=>"When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ian M.", "last_name"=>"Lyons", "scopus_author_id"=>"24781253200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sian L.", "last_name"=>"Beilock", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701590653"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23118929", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0048076", "sgr"=>"84868286211", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868286211", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365972071"}, "id"=>"d8c4ca37-1299-32de-af38-29f8b7c0da14", "abstract"=>"Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/math-hurts-math-anxiety-predicts-pain-network-activation-anticipation-doing-math", "reader_count"=>284, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>71, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>49, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>33, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>71, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>49, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>33, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>6, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>102, "Social Sciences"=>56}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>56}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>102}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>27}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Turkey"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>14, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Italy"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/549976"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076#pone-0048076-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> shows ROI multiple regression results. In each region, SMARS was entered as the dependent measure and math-cue, math-task, word-cue, and word-task activity (βs for each participant) were entered as predictors. SMARS was chosen as a DV to compare the relative contributions of the various cue and task βs, and in no way implies a causal relation. In each region, only math-cue-activity and word-cue-activity remained significant. These results are summarized in the middle section. Note that the <i>r</i> partial values should not be interpreted as activity levels (i.e., βs relative to baseline) but as partial correlations; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076#pone-0048076-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for mean βs. For math-activity, the difference in standardized slopes (<i>r</i> partial) between SMARS and cue-activity and SMARS and task-activity was significant in all regions, as assessed by SMARS × 2(Segment: math-cue, math-task) ANCOVAs (the influences of word-cue-activity and word-task-activity were covaried out). <i>F</i> and <i>p</i> values for these interaction terms are shown in the rightmost column. The same was done for word-activity (grey rows), but with math-cue-activity and math-task-activity covaried out.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "science policy"], "article_id"=>220477, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ian M. Lyons", "Sian L. Beilock"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_Details_/220477", "title"=>"Regression Details.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:56:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/549874"], "description"=>"<p><b>Left:</b> Regions showing a significant SMARS × 2(Cue: math-cue, word-cue) interaction at the whole brain level (<i>p</i><.005, cluster-corrected at α = .01). INSp: dorso-posterior insula; MCC: mid-cingulate cortex; CSd: dorsal central sulcus (not pictured); see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076#pone-0048076-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> (left) for complete region details. <b>Right:</b> Multiple-regression adjusted partial <i>r</i> correlation coefficients (error-bars represent standard-errors). This is the correlation that remains between the DV (SMARS) and the IV in question, after removing the linear effects of the other three IVs from both variables; IVs = neural-activity: math-cue, math-task, word-cue, word-task. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076#pone-0048076-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> (center) for full regression results. SMARS was chosen as a DV to compare the relative contributions of the various cue and task βs, and in no way implies a causal relation. Note that these bars should not be interpreted as activity levels (i.e., βs relative to baseline), but as partial correlations; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076#pone-0048076-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for mean βs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roi", "regression"], "article_id"=>220374, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ian M. Lyons", "Sian L. Beilock"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_brain_and_ROI_regression_results_/220374", "title"=>"Whole-brain and ROI regression results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/549951"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: ER: error-rates (percent incorrect); RT: response-times (sec); se: stander-error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "science policy"], "article_id"=>220449, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ian M. Lyons", "Sian L. Beilock"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioral_Data_/220449", "title"=>"Behavioral Data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:56:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550005"], "description"=>"<p>The right-most three columns show mean activity levels in each region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience", "science policy"], "article_id"=>220506, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ian M. Lyons", "Sian L. Beilock"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048076.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Region_Details_/220506", "title"=>"Region Details.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:56:56"}

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Relative Metric

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