A Practical Approach to Language Complexity: A Wikipedia Case Study
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{"title"=>"A Practical Approach to Language Complexity: A Wikipedia Case Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Taha", "last_name"=>"Yasseri", "scopus_author_id"=>"26531952500"}, {"first_name"=>"András", "last_name"=>"Kornai", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506991157"}, {"first_name"=>"János", "last_name"=>"Kertész", "scopus_author_id"=>"35473453300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"0011-3891", "arxiv"=>"1203.2655", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0048386", "pui"=>"366024937", "sgr"=>"84868674734", "pmid"=>"23189130", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868674734"}, "id"=>"d6ead20a-9c82-3aab-83ba-7b4ca83d95ef", "abstract"=>"In this paper we present statistical analysis of English texts from Wikipedia. We try to address the issue of language complexity empirically by comparing the simple English Wikipedia (Simple) to comparable samples of the main English Wikipedia (Main). Simple is supposed to use a more simplified language with a limited vocabulary, and editors are explicitly requested to follow this guideline, yet in practice the vocabulary richness of both samples are at the same level. Detailed analysis of longer units (n-grams of words and part of speech tags) shows that the language of Simple is less complex than that of Main primarily due to the use of shorter sentences, as opposed to drastically simplified syntax or vocabulary. Comparing the two language varieties by the Gunning readability index supports this conclusion. We also report on the topical dependence of language complexity, that is, that the language is more advanced in conceptual articles compared to person-based (biographical) and object-based articles. Finally, we investigate the relation between conflict and language complexity by analyzing the content of the talk pages associated to controversial and peacefully developing articles, concluding that controversy has the effect of reducing language complexity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/practical-approach-language-complexity-wikipedia-case-study", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>21, "Engineering"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>8, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>21}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "United States"=>4, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Philippines"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546751"], "description"=>"<p>The articles on <i>April</i> in Main English and Simple English Wikipedias.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articles", "english"], "article_id"=>217248, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_articles_on_April_in_Main_English_and_Simple_English_Wikipedias_/217248", "title"=>"The articles on <i>April</i> in Main English and Simple English Wikipedias.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:00:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546811"], "description"=>"<p>Gunning fog index for samples of articles in 10 different categories in Main and Simple.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["topical"], "article_id"=>217310, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Readability_in_different_topical_categories_/217310", "title"=>"Readability in different topical categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:01:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546540"], "description"=>"<p>Number of appearances of POS n-grams in Main and Simple for <i>n</i> = 1–5 under condition N.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computer science", "science policy", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>217033, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_N_gram_statistical_analysis_of_Main_and_Simple_/217033", "title"=>"N-gram statistical analysis of Main and Simple", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 01:57:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546111"], "description"=>"<p>Condition WB, as explained the Methods section. <i>left:</i> Zipf’s law for the Main (black) and Simple (red) samples. <i>middle:</i> Heaps’ law (same colors). The exponents are 0.72±0.01 (Main) and 0.69±0.01 (Simple). <i>right:</i> Comparing token frequencies in the two samples for 300 randomly selected words (“S” and “M” stand for Simple and Main respectively), the correlation coefficient is C = 0.985. All three diagrams show that the two samples have statistically almost the same vocabulary richness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computer science", "science policy", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>216605, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Word_level_statistical_analysis_of_Main_and_Simple_/216605", "title"=>"Word-level statistical analysis of Main and Simple.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 01:50:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546248"], "description"=>"<p>Condition WB, as explained the Methods section. Number of appearances of n-grams in Main (black) and Simple (red) for <i>n</i> = 2−5 from left to right. By increasing <i>n</i>, the difference between two samples becomes more significant. In Simple there are more of the frequently appearing n-grams than in Main.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computer science", "science policy", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>216740, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_N_gram_statistical_analysis_of_Main_and_Simple_/216740", "title"=>"N-gram statistical analysis of Main and Simple.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 01:52:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546714"], "description"=>"<p>For the definition of conditions (character- or word-balanced, with or without puctuation, with or without Porter stemming) see the Methods section. SR is size ratio (number of characters in C conditions, number of words in W conditions) for comparable Main and Simple corpora. <i>C<sub>M</sub></i> and <i>C<sub>S</sub></i> are Herdan’s <i>C</i> for Main and Simple. As the last column shows, the vocabulary richness of comparable Simle and Main corpora differs at most by 0.72% depending on condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness"], "article_id"=>217214, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vocabulary_richness_in_Main_and_Simple_/217214", "title"=>"Vocabulary richness in Main and Simple.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:00:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546683"], "description"=>"<p>Gunning fog index for 6 different corpora of WSJ: <i>Wall Street Journal</i>•, <i>Charles Dickens’</i> books, SJM: <i>San Jose Mercury News</i>*, BNC: <i>British National Corpus</i><sup>†</sup>, Simple, and Main. •<a href=\"http://www.wsj.com\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.wsj.com</a> *<a href=\"http://www.mercurynews.com\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.mercurynews.com</a><sup>†</sup><a href=\"http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["english"], "article_id"=>217186, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Readability_of_different_English_corpora_/217186", "title"=>"Readability of different English corpora.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 01:59:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546845"], "description"=>"<p>Gunning fog index for the same example articles in Main and Simple.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["readability", "english"], "article_id"=>217341, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_readability_in_Main_and_Simple_English_Wikipedias_/217341", "title"=>"Comparison of readability in Main and Simple English Wikipedias.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:02:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/293130", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/293185"], "description"=>"<div><p>In this paper we present statistical analysis of English texts from Wikipedia. We try to address the issue of language complexity empirically by comparing the simple English Wikipedia (Simple) to comparable samples of the main English Wikipedia (Main). Simple is supposed to use a more simplified language with a limited vocabulary, and editors are explicitly requested to follow this guideline, yet in practice the vocabulary richness of both samples are at the same level. Detailed analysis of longer units (n-grams of words and part of speech tags) shows that the language of Simple is less complex than that of Main primarily due to the use of shorter sentences, as opposed to drastically simplified syntax or vocabulary. Comparing the two language varieties by the Gunning readability index supports this conclusion. We also report on the topical dependence of language complexity, that is, that the language is more advanced in conceptual articles compared to person-based (biographical) and object-based articles. Finally, we investigate the relation between conflict and language complexity by analyzing the content of the talk pages associated to controversial and peacefully developing articles, concluding that controversy has the effect of reducing language complexity.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wikipedia", "study"], "article_id"=>117706, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Practical_Approach_to_Language_Complexity_A_Wikipedia_Case_Study__/117706", "title"=>"A Practical Approach to Language Complexity: A Wikipedia Case Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:08:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546869"], "description"=>"<p>Angle, in decimal degrees, between Simple and Main (column SM), Main and WSJ (column MW), and Simple and WSJ (column SW) based on POS n-grams for , under condition SN, with postprocessing of n-grams spanning sentence boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samples"], "article_id"=>217367, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_similarity_between_different_samples_at_different_length_of_n_grams_/217367", "title"=>"Statistical similarity between different samples at different length of n-grams.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:02:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546355"], "description"=>"<p>Condition O, as explained the Methods section. The legends are defined as NN: Noun, singular or mass; IN: Preposition or subordinating conjunction; NNP: Proper noun, singular; DT: Determiner; JJ: Adjective; NNS: Noun, plural; VBD: Verb, past tense; CC: Coordinating conjunction; CD: Cardinal number; RB: Adverb; VBN: Verb, past participle; VBZ: Verb, 3rd person singular present; TO: to; VB: Verb, base form; VBG: Verb, gerund or present participle; PRP: Personal pronoun; VBP: Verb, non-3rd person singular present; PRP$: Possessive pronoun; POS: Possessive ending; WDT: Wh-determiner; MD: Modal; NNPS: Proper noun, plural; WRB: Wh-adverb; JJR: Adjective, comparative; JJS: Adjective, superlative; WP: Wh-pronoun; RP: Particle; RBR: Adverb, comparative; EX: Existential there; SYM: Symbol; RBS: Adverb, superlative; FW: Foreign word; PDT: Predeterminer; WP$: Possessive wh-pronoun; LS: List item marker; UH: Interjection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["english"], "article_id"=>216854, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Part_of_Speech_statistics_of_Main_English_and_Simple_English_Wikipedias_/216854", "title"=>"Part of Speech statistics of Main English and Simple English Wikipedias.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 01:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546788"], "description"=>"<p>Gunning fog index for two sample articles of highly controversial and peaceful articles and the corresponding talk pages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computer science", "science policy", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>217284, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Physics"], "users"=>["Taha Yasseri", "András Kornai", "János Kertész"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048386.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Controversy_and_readability_/217284", "title"=>"Controversy and readability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-07 02:01:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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