A Sex Difference in the Predisposition for Physical Competition: Males Play Sports Much More than Females Even in the Contemporary U.S
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{"title"=>"A Sex Difference in the Predisposition for Physical Competition: Males Play Sports Much More than Females Even in the Contemporary U.S", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert O.", "last_name"=>"Deaner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603372132"}, {"first_name"=>"David C.", "last_name"=>"Geary", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102892794"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Puts", "scopus_author_id"=>"8699951600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra A.", "last_name"=>"Ham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005006847"}, {"first_name"=>"Judy", "last_name"=>"Kruger", "scopus_author_id"=>"8237541200"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Fles", "scopus_author_id"=>"55484542600"}, {"first_name"=>"Bo", "last_name"=>"Winegard", "scopus_author_id"=>"37017750500"}, {"first_name"=>"Terry", "last_name"=>"Grandis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55485378500"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23155459", "sgr"=>"84869108840", "pui"=>"366053621", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84869108840", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0049168", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ad2d12bc-2f91-30b5-83e1-bdd7d1addf34", "abstract"=>"Much evidence indicates that men experienced an evolutionary history of physical competition, both one-on-one and in coalitions. We thus hypothesized that, compared to girls and women, boys and men will possess a greater motivational predisposition to be interested in sports, especially team sports. According to most scholars, advocacy groups, and the United States courts, however, this hypothesis is challenged by modest sex differences in organized school sports participation in the contemporary U.S., where females comprise 42% of high school participants and 43% of intercollegiate participants. We conducted three studies to test whether organized school sports participation data underestimate the actual sex difference in sports participation. Study 1 analyzed the American Time Use Survey, which interviewed 112,000 individuals regarding their activities during one day. Females accounted for 51% of exercise (i.e., non-competitive) participations, 24% of total sports participations, and 20% of team sports participations. These sex differences were similar for older and younger age groups. Study 2 was based on systematic observations of sports and exercise at 41 public parks in four states. Females accounted for 37% of exercise participations, 19% of individual sports participations, and 10% of team sports participations. Study 3 involved surveying colleges and universities about intramural sports, which primarily consist of undergraduate participation in team sports. Across 34 institutions, females accounted for 26% of registrations. Nine institutions provided historical data, and these did not indicate that the sex difference is diminishing. 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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542704"], "description"=>"<p>p<.01 for difference between males and females except where indicated.</p>a<p>No significant difference between males and females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["participations", "parks", "males"], "article_id"=>213188, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sports_and_exercise_participations_at_public_parks_by_researcher_for_males_and_females_/213188", "title"=>"Sports and exercise participations at public parks by researcher for males and females.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:53:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/292844", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/292932"], "description"=>"<div><p>Much evidence indicates that men experienced an evolutionary history of physical competition, both one-on-one and in coalitions. We thus hypothesized that, compared to girls and women, boys and men will possess a greater motivational predisposition to be interested in sports, especially team sports. According to most scholars, advocacy groups, and the United States courts, however, this hypothesis is challenged by modest sex differences in organized school sports participation in the contemporary U.S., where females comprise 42% of high school participants and 43% of intercollegiate participants. We conducted three studies to test whether organized school sports participation data underestimate the actual sex difference in sports participation. Study 1 analyzed the American Time Use Survey, which interviewed 112,000 individuals regarding their activities during one day. Females accounted for 51% of exercise (i.e., non-competitive) participations, 24% of total sports participations, and 20% of team sports participations. These sex differences were similar for older and younger age groups. Study 2 was based on systematic observations of sports and exercise at 41 public parks in four states. Females accounted for 37% of exercise participations, 19% of individual sports participations, and 10% of team sports participations. Study 3 involved surveying colleges and universities about intramural sports, which primarily consist of undergraduate participation in team sports. Across 34 institutions, females accounted for 26% of registrations. Nine institutions provided historical data, and these did not indicate that the sex difference is diminishing. Therefore, although efforts to ensure more equitable access to sports in the U.S. (i.e., Title IX) have produced many benefits, patterns of sports participation do not challenge the hypothesis of a large sex difference in interest and participation in physical competition.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predisposition", "males", "sports", "females"], "article_id"=>117639, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Sex_Difference_in_the_Predisposition_for_Physical_Competition_Males_Play_Sports_Much_More_than_Females_Even_in_the_Contemporary_U_S__/117639", "title"=>"A Sex Difference in the Predisposition for Physical Competition: Males Play Sports Much More than Females Even in the Contemporary U.S", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 02:07:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542899"], "description"=>"<p>Values indicate means and (standard deviations).</p>a<p>p = .001;</p>b<p>p<.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sports", "males", "american"], "article_id"=>213386, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Durations_of_sports_and_exercise_for_males_and_females_American_Time_Use_Survey_2003_8211_2010_/213386", "title"=>"Durations of sports and exercise for males and females, American Time Use Survey 2003–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542929"], "description"=>"<p>p<.01 for difference between males and females except where indicated.</p>a<p>No significant difference between males and females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intramural"], "article_id"=>213422, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_female_participation_for_team_individual_and_popular_intramural_sports_/213422", "title"=>"Percentage female participation for team, individual, and popular intramural sports.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:57:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542746"], "description"=>"<p>p<.01 for difference between males and females except where indicated.</p>a<p>No significant difference between males and females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["participations", "parks", "groups", "males"], "article_id"=>213231, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sports_and_exercise_participations_at_public_parks_by_age_groups_for_males_and_females_/213231", "title"=>"Sports and exercise participations at public parks by age groups for males and females.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:53:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542962"], "description"=>"<p>No correlation reached statistical significance, p<.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intramural", "sports"], "article_id"=>213456, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_female_participation_in_intramural_sports_over_time_/213456", "title"=>"Percentage female participation in intramural sports over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:57:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542817"], "description"=>"<p>CI = 95% confidence interval. p<.05 for difference between males and females except where indicated. NA = not applicable because (standard error/%) exceeds 0.30.</p><p>The exercise “caving, spelunking and climbing” is all NA (not shown).</p>a<p>No significant difference between males and females.</p>b<p>Estimates of % females do not correspond perfectly with male and female participation rates because there are more females than males in the population, especially in older age groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "sports", "activities", "males", "american"], "article_id"=>213302, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participation_rates_for_sports_and_exercise_activities_on_one_day_by_males_and_females_American_Time_Use_Survey_2003_8211_2010_/213302", "title"=>"Participation rates for sports and exercise activities on one day by males and females, American Time Use Survey 2003–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:55:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542654"], "description"=>"<p>p<.01 for difference between males and females except where indicated.</p>a<p>No significant difference between males and females.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["participations", "parks", "males"], "article_id"=>213143, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sports_and_exercise_participations_at_public_parks_by_males_and_females_/213143", "title"=>"Sports and exercise participations at public parks by males and females.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:52:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/542784"], "description"=>"<p>p<.0001 for difference between males and females at all institutions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "enrollments", "intramural", "sports"], "article_id"=>213272, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Robert O. Deaner", "David C. Geary", "David A. Puts", "Sandra A. Ham", "Judy Kruger", "Elizabeth Fles", "Bo Winegard", "Terry Grandis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049168.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sex_differences_in_enrollments_and_intramural_IM_sports_participations_/213272", "title"=>"Sex differences in enrollments and intramural (IM) sports participations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-14 00:54:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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