Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?
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{"title"=>"Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emile", "last_name"=>"van der Zee", "scopus_author_id"=>"35410847100"}, {"first_name"=>"Helen", "last_name"=>"Zulch", "scopus_author_id"=>"26434507100"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Mills", "scopus_author_id"=>"55963188300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84869751826", "pui"=>"366113343", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0049382", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84869751826", "pmid"=>"23185321"}, "id"=>"f2df6e54-4af7-369d-83e6-e2cf2a052ac3", "abstract"=>"We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/word-generalization-dog-canis-familiaris-shape-important", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Psychology"=>20, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>20}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>3, "Malaysia"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434466"], "description"=>"<p>Gable learnt to link the word <i>dax</i> with standard object 1: the DAX object (furry light blue 7.6 cm wide). He was asked to select a DAX from pairs of objects including the DAX, size changes 2 (15.2 cm) and 3 (30.4 cm), texture changes 4 (smooth) and 5 (rough), and shape changes 6 and 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["word comprehension", "shape bias", "word generalization", "word reference development", "object names"], "article_id"=>208096, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Emile van der Zee", "Helen Zulch", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Objects_used_in_experiments_2_and_4_/208096", "title"=>"Objects used in experiments 2 and 4.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-21 14:39:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434508"], "description"=>"<p>Gable learnt to link the word <i>gnark</i> with standard object 1: the GNARK object (16 cm * 6 cm). He was asked to select a GNARK from pairs of objects including the GNARK, shape changes 2 and 3, and size changes 4–6 (8 cm * 3 cm) and 7–9 (24 cm * 9 cm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["word comprehension", "shape bias", "word generalization", "word reference development", "object names"], "article_id"=>208181, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Emile van der Zee", "Helen Zulch", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Objects_used_in_experiment_3_/208181", "title"=>"Objects used in experiment 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-21 14:39:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434391", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434397"], "description"=>"<div><p>We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. <i>dax</i>) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["word comprehension", "shape bias", "word generalization", "word reference development", "object names"], "article_id"=>1083694, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Emile van der Zee", "Helen Zulch", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Word_Generalization_by_a_Dog_Canis_familiaris_Is_Shape_Important_/1083694", "title"=>"Word Generalization by a Dog (<i>Canis familiaris</i>): Is Shape Important?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-21 14:39:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4434433"], "description"=>"<p>The lay-out of the area in which Gable was tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["word comprehension", "shape bias", "word generalization", "word reference development", "object names"], "article_id"=>207995, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Emile van der Zee", "Helen Zulch", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049382.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_lay_out_of_the_area_in_which_Gable_was_tested_/207995", "title"=>"The lay-out of the area in which Gable was tested.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-21 14:39:51"}

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Relative Metric

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