Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations
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{"title"=>"Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen J.", "last_name"=>"Genuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603897852"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerry", "last_name"=>"Schwalfenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"18038854700"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna Kristen J.", "last_name"=>"Siy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55496543600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilya", "last_name"=>"Rodushkin", "scopus_author_id"=>"55922679500"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"366113302", "sgr"=>"84869848861", "pmid"=>"23185404", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84869848861", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "arxiv"=>"arXiv:1011.1669v3", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0049676", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"34709720-c9b4-3c24-91c7-a331d8b04d32", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs.\\n\\nMETHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits.\\n\\nRESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/toxic-element-contamination-natural-health-products-pharmaceutical-preparations", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>17, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>17}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537776"], "description"=>"<p>Category of NHP indicates classification of product in store or company where purchased. This does not necessarily indicate where source materials for the NHPs are initially manufactured or derived.</p><p>Average daily exposure represents the mean level after all supplements for each category are incorporated.</p>*<p>Limits from U.S. California Proposition <sup>65, </sup><sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone.0049676-Californias1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a></sup> and Environmental Protection Agency<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone.0049676-United2\" target=\"_blank\">[102]</a></sup> as per <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>**<p>The limit of detection will vary between analytical laboratories and may thus influence the percent with detectable contaminants when levels are at low concentrations.</p>***<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 3</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a> should be interpreted together and in context as there were single outliers (such as the Hg level in one Chinese NHP) that radically skewed the mean and standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contamination"], "article_id"=>208275, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Toxic_Element_Contamination_within_Subgroups__/208275", "title"=>"Results of Toxic Element Contamination within Subgroups<sup>***</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:50:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537720"], "description"=>"<p>Category of NHP indicates classification of product in store or company where purchased. This does not necessarily indicate where source materials for the NHPs are initially manufactured or derived.</p>***<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 3</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a> should be interpreted together and in context as there were single outliers (such as the Hg level in one Chinese NHP) that radically skewed the mean and standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["toxicant", "levels", "nhp"], "article_id"=>208214, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Highest_Toxicant_Levels_by_Origin_of_NHP_mcg_unless_otherwise_specified__/208214", "title"=>"Highest Toxicant Levels by Origin of NHP (mcg unless otherwise specified)<sup>***</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:49:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537686"], "description"=>"<p>Results of Toxic Element Contamination in a Commonly Consumed Prenatal Vitamin Supplement (Results represent average daily exposure at regular dosing).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contamination", "consumed", "prenatal", "supplement"], "article_id"=>208182, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Toxic_Element_Contamination_in_a_Commonly_Consumed_Prenatal_Vitamin_Supplement_Results_represent_average_daily_exposure_at_regular_dosing_/208182", "title"=>"Results of Toxic Element Contamination in a Commonly Consumed Prenatal Vitamin Supplement (Results represent average daily exposure at regular dosing).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537518"], "description"=>"<p>Use of Alternative medicine in relation to Conventional Medicine <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone.0049676-Eisenberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[<b>34</b>]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "public health and epidemiology", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>208007, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Use_of_Alternative_medicine_in_relation_to_Conventional_Medicine_34_/208007", "title"=>"Use of Alternative medicine in relation to Conventional Medicine [<b>34</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:48:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537753"], "description"=>"<p>Category of NHP indicates classification of product in store or company where purchased. This does not necessarily indicate where source materials for the NHPs are initially manufactured or derived.</p>*<p>Limits from U.S. California Proposition <sup>65, </sup><sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone.0049676-Californias1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a></sup> and Environmental Protection Agency <sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone.0049676-United2\" target=\"_blank\">[102]</a></sup> as per <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>**<p>The limit of detection will vary between analytical laboratories and may thus influence the percent with detectable contaminants when levels are at low concentrations.</p>***<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 3</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676#pone-0049676-t006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a> should be interpreted together and in context as there were single outliers (such as the Hg level in one Chinese NHP) that radically skewed the mean and standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "public health and epidemiology", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>208247, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overall_Results_of_Toxic_Element_Contamination__/208247", "title"=>"Overall Results of Toxic Element Contamination<sup>***</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:50:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/537819"], "description"=>"<p>NE – Not established.</p><p>European/WHO/Australian levels were established by convention as representing 10% of the daily total toxicant intake after conversion of values expressed in mg/kg/week for an average adult weight of 60 kg.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["toxicant", "limits", "supplements"], "article_id"=>208315, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Genuis", "Gerry Schwalfenberg", "Anna-Kristen J. Siy", "Ilya Rodushkin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049676.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Established_Toxicant_Limits_in_Supplements_mcg_day_/208315", "title"=>"Established Toxicant Limits in Supplements (mcg/day).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:50:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"37", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"72", "full-text"=>"90", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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