Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)
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{"title"=>"Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marcello A.", "last_name"=>"Mannino", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007087512"}, {"first_name"=>"Giulio", "last_name"=>"Catalano", "scopus_author_id"=>"35931860800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sahra", "last_name"=>"Talamo", "scopus_author_id"=>"8950440700"}, {"first_name"=>"Giovanni", "last_name"=>"Mannino", "scopus_author_id"=>"55507545100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosaria", "last_name"=>"Di Salvo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36460824500"}, {"first_name"=>"Vittoria", "last_name"=>"Schimmenti", "scopus_author_id"=>"45661853900"}, {"first_name"=>"Carles", "last_name"=>"Lalueza-Fox", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189023258"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Messina", "scopus_author_id"=>"36461482400"}, {"first_name"=>"Daria", "last_name"=>"Petruso", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504247585"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Caramelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603421409"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael P.", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"55953686600"}, {"first_name"=>"Luca", "last_name"=>"Sineo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602972993"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"366164747", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0049802", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870333420", "pmid"=>"23209602", "sgr"=>"84870333420"}, "id"=>"22b11b8d-64f7-3a51-8a04-dae78f250b0b", "abstract"=>"Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the E`gadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/origin-diet-prehistoric-huntergatherers-mediterranean-island-favignana-%C3%A8gadi-islands-sicily", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287533"], "description"=>"<div><p>Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prehistoric", "hunter-gatherers", "mediterranean", "favignana"], "article_id"=>116644, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Origin_and_Diet_of_the_Prehistoric_Hunter_Gatherers_on_the_Mediterranean_Island_of_Favignana_gadi_Islands_Sicily__/116644", "title"=>"Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535090"], "description"=>"<p>These cave sites include: Grotta d’Oriente (1) and Grotta dell’Ucceria (2) on the island of Favignana; Grotta di Punta Capperi (3), Grotta di Cala dei Genovesi (3), Grotta Schiacciata (4) and Grotta di Cala Calcara (5) on the island of Levanzo; Grotta Maiorana (6), Riparo San Francesco (7), Grotta Martogna (8), Grotta Emiliana (9) and Grotta Maltese (9) on the mainland of Sicily. No late Pleistocene or early Holocene site has been discovered on the westernmost island of the archipelago, Marettimo, and on the two islets of Maraone and Formica, between Levanzo and the mainland. Taking into account that the coast of NW Sicily has been tectonically stable during the period in question and using the sea level curve published by Lambeck et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Lambeck1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>, it can be hypothesized that Levanzo became an island sometime between 9,000 and 8,500 cal. BP (as modelled by Mannino et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Mannino10\" target=\"_blank\">[74]</a>), while Favignana was fully isolated around 7,000 calibrated years BP and was a peninsula for part of the early Holocene. The later Mesolithic hunter-gatherer (Oriente X), whose remains have been recovered at Grotta d’Oriente, lived at a time (ca. 9,500 cal. BP) when the sea level was around −41 m. At this time the shoreline was somewhere between the −50 m and −20 m bathymetry contour lines and Levanzo was probably a small peninsula.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["palaeolithic", "mesolithic", "sites", "islands", "nw"], "article_id"=>205573, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Upper_Palaeolithic_and_Mesolithic_sites_on_the_200_gadi_Islands_and_in_NW_Sicily_/205573", "title"=>"Location of Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites on the Ègadi Islands and in NW Sicily.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:32:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535543"], "description"=>"<p>The dates were performed at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit on specimens from the stratigraphic units 40–60 cm and 100–114 cm of Trench B (Grotta d’Oriente). The dates were calibrated with Oxcal 4.1. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-BronkRamsey1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a> using the Marine09 calibration curve <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Reimer1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a> and the marine reservoir correction value (ΔR = 71.00±50) for Sicily <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Siani1\" target=\"_blank\">[82]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiocarbon", "dates", "shells", "intertidal", "gastropod"], "article_id"=>206023, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AMS_radiocarbon_dates_on_shells_of_the_marine_intertidal_gastropod_Osilinus_turbinatus_/206023", "title"=>"AMS radiocarbon dates on shells of the marine intertidal gastropod <i>Osilinus turbinatus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:40:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535646"], "description"=>"<p>Mitochondrial HVR-1 haplotypes of the researchers that have been in physical contact with the vertebra of Oriente B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hvr-1", "haplotypes", "researchers", "been", "vertebra", "oriente"], "article_id"=>206123, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mitochondrial_HVR_1_haplotypes_of_the_researchers_that_have_been_in_physical_contact_with_the_vertebra_of_Oriente_B_/206123", "title"=>"Mitochondrial HVR-1 haplotypes of the researchers that have been in physical contact with the vertebra of Oriente B.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:42:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535592"], "description"=>"<p>(*)the C/N ratios of the human bone collagen from Grotta dell’Uzzo are at the limit for well-preserved collagen ( = 3.6). In the absence of other published data on the quality of the collagen (%C, %N, %yield) analysed by Francalacci <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Francalacci1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>, the isotope ratios of these individuals should be considered with caution. The low δ<sup>13</sup>C values might, in fact, be due to contamination.</p><p>(**)the standard deviation could not be calculated because the raw data was not published by Paine et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Paine1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitrogen", "isotope", "collagen", "mediterranean", "palaeolithic", "ka", "cal", "mesolithic"], "article_id"=>206070, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_values_from_bone_collagen_of_Mediterranean_late_Upper_Palaeolithic_17_8211_11_ka_cal_BP_and_Mesolithic_10_8_ka_cal_BP_humans_/206070", "title"=>"Carbon and nitrogen isotope values from bone collagen of Mediterranean late Upper Palaeolithic (17–11 ka cal BP) and Mesolithic (10-8 ka cal BP) humans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:41:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535492"], "description"=>"<p>The dates were performed at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit and at the Liebniz Laboratory of the Christian Albrechts Universität of Kiel on the bone collagen of two Mesolithic humans from Grotta d’Oriente. The dates were calibrated with Oxcal 4.1. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-BronkRamsey1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a> using the IntCal09 calibration curve <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Reimer1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>. The date on sample S-EVA 2800 (KIA-36050) had previously been reported by D’Amore et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-DAmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[67]</a>. The age obtained by modelling the AMS radiocarbon dates from the three rib fragments of Oriente B (S-EVA 2799-2801), however, represents a more accurate estimate of the chronology of this individual. The calibration of the <sup>14</sup>C dates done by taking into account the potential estimated proportions of marine foods consumed by Oriente × (<20%) and Oriente B (<10%), and the marine reservoir correction for Sicily <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802#pone.0049802-Siani1\" target=\"_blank\">[82]</a>, produces respectively calendar ages of 9620 (p.95.4%) 9480 cal. BP and 10580 (95.4%) 10420 cal. BP. These age ranges are only marginally more recent than those shown in the table, calculated assuming fully terrestrial diets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiocarbon", "dates", "collagen", "mesolithic"], "article_id"=>205978, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AMS_radiocarbon_dates_on_the_bone_collagen_of_the_two_Mesolithic_individuals_/205978", "title"=>"AMS radiocarbon dates on the bone collagen of the two Mesolithic individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:39:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535213"], "description"=>"<p>Plan of Grotta d’Oriente illustrating areas and trenches excavated during the 1972 and 2005 campaigns.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grotta", "illustrating", "areas", "trenches", "excavated", "1972", "2005"], "article_id"=>205691, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plan_of_Grotta_d_8217_Oriente_illustrating_areas_and_trenches_excavated_during_the_1972_and_2005_campaigns_/205691", "title"=>"Plan of Grotta d’Oriente illustrating areas and trenches excavated during the 1972 and 2005 campaigns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:34:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535698"], "description"=>"<p>The fauna includes: red deer (<i>C. elaphus</i>), aurochs (<i>B. primigenius</i>), wild boar (<i>S. scrofa</i>), red fox (<i>V. vulpes</i>), ovicaprids (<i>Ovis vel Capra</i>) and dusky grouper (<i>E. marginatus</i>). The <i>C. elaphus</i> specimen S-EVA 13802 originates from stratigraphic unit 110–180 cm in Trench C and is in a different state of preservation compared to all other bones analyzed, thereby pre-dating the Mesolithic humans (Oriente B and X) and most certainly also the late Upper Palaeolithic individual (Oriente C). The wild boar (<i>S. scrofa</i>) specimen S-EVA 13810 is a juvenile and its high δ<sup>15</sup>N value compared to S-EVA 13811 (an adult) probably reflects in part the isotopic composition of protein acquired before weaning. The samples of ovicaprids (<i>Ovis vel Capra</i>) are early Neolithic and post-date all the humans from Grotta d’Oriente. This might also be the case of the dusky grouper (<i>Epinephelus marginatus</i>) specimen from stratigraphic unit 14–40 cm of Trench C (S-EVA 13800).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitrogen", "isotope", "collagen", "prehistoric", "humans", "fauna", "grotta"], "article_id"=>206170, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_values_from_bone_collagen_of_the_prehistoric_humans_and_fauna_from_Grotta_d_8217_Oriente_/206170", "title"=>"Carbon and nitrogen isotope values from bone collagen of the prehistoric humans and fauna from Grotta d’Oriente.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:42:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535375"], "description"=>"<p>Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bone collagen from Mesolithic humans and fauna of Grotta d’Oriente.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitrogen", "isotope", "collagen", "mesolithic", "humans", "fauna", "grotta"], "article_id"=>205853, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marcello A. Mannino", "Giulio Catalano", "Sahra Talamo", "Giovanni Mannino", "Rosaria Di Salvo", "Vittoria Schimmenti", "Carles Lalueza-Fox", "Andrea Messina", "Daria Petruso", "David Caramelli", "Michael P. Richards", "Luca Sineo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049802.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbon_and_nitrogen_isotope_composition_of_bone_collagen_from_Mesolithic_humans_and_fauna_of_Grotta_d_8217_Oriente_/205853", "title"=>"Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bone collagen from Mesolithic humans and fauna of Grotta d’Oriente.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:37:33"}

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