The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum
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{"title"=>"The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jesse", "last_name"=>"Graham", "scopus_author_id"=>"32667712200"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian A.", "last_name"=>"Nosek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602443500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Haidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602128532"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871232914", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0050092", "sgr"=>"84871232914", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23251357", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"366284895"}, "id"=>"dad7e09f-108b-3dea-9363-318120e8979b", "abstract"=>"We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about \"typical\" liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/moral-stereotypes-liberals-conservatives-exaggeration-differences-across-political-spectrum", "reader_count"=>182, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Philosophy"=>11, "Arts and Humanities"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>5, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>89, "Social Sciences"=>41, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>41}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>89}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>7}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>5}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>11}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>12, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>14}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526102"], "description"=>"<p>Comparisons of moral stereotypes to actual conservative-liberal differences in moral foundation endorsement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stereotypes", "conservative-liberal", "differences"], "article_id"=>196597, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_of_moral_stereotypes_to_actual_conservative_liberal_differences_in_moral_foundation_endorsement_/196597", "title"=>"Comparisons of moral stereotypes to actual conservative-liberal differences in moral foundation endorsement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:46:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526292"], "description"=>"<p>Moral stereotypes about the typical liberal's and typical conservative's endorsement of the binding foundations (Ingroup, Authority, Purity), and individualizing foundations (Harm, Fairness).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stereotypes", "endorsement", "binding", "foundations", "individualizing"], "article_id"=>196782, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moral_stereotypes_about_the_typical_liberal_s_and_typical_conservative_s_endorsement_of_the_binding_foundations_Ingroup_Authority_Purity_and_individualizing_foundations_Harm_Fairness_/196782", "title"=>"Moral stereotypes about the typical liberal's and typical conservative's endorsement of the binding foundations (Ingroup, Authority, Purity), and individualizing foundations (Harm, Fairness).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:47:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526447"], "description"=>"<p>Exaggeration of moral differences across political ideology.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences"], "article_id"=>196943, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exaggeration_of_moral_differences_across_political_ideology_/196943", "title"=>"Exaggeration of moral differences across political ideology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:48:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526597"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Top panel shows predicted and actual answers for the study sample, and bottom panel shows the same for the comparison to the nationally-representative dataset, using only items common to both datasets (no items in common for Ingroup judgments). Sample sizes for each statistic, as well as predicted “typical” answers broken down by liberals, moderates, and conservatives, can be found in the supplement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foundations", "subscore", "means"], "article_id"=>197091, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_and_actual_Moral_Foundations_Questionnaire_subscore_means_and_standard_deviations_/197091", "title"=>"Predicted and actual Moral Foundations Questionnaire subscore means and standard deviations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526630"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Top panel compares predicted and actual answers for the study sample, and bottom panel compares predictions to actual answers in the nationally-representative dataset, using only items common to both datasets (no items in common for Ingroup judgments). Lib = Liberal participants, Mod = Moderate participants, Con = Conservative participants. Formulas used to calculate <i>t, df,</i> and <i>d</i> without assuming equal sample sizes or variances can be found in the supplement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "answers"], "article_id"=>197132, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_comparisons_of_actual_and_predicted_answers_for_liberals_moderates_and_conservatives_/197132", "title"=>"Statistical comparisons of actual and predicted answers for liberals, moderates, and conservatives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526662"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Top panel shows predicted and actual answers for the study sample, and bottom panel shows the same for the comparison to the nationally-representative dataset, using only items common to both datasets (no items in common for Ingroup judgments). S.E. = standard error of the difference between the means, based on pooled standard deviations and not assuming equal sizes or variances in the two groups. Lib = Liberal predictors, Mod = Moderate predictors, Con = Conservative predictors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conservative-liberal", "differences", "compared"], "article_id"=>197160, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Jesse Graham", "Brian A. Nosek", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Actual_conservative_liberal_differences_compared_to_those_predicted_by_liberals_moderates_and_conservatives_/197160", "title"=>"Actual conservative-liberal differences compared to those predicted by liberals, moderates, and conservatives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:31"}

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Relative Metric

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