Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System
Publication Date
November 28, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Ganesh Prasad Arun Kumar, David F. Soria Hernanz, Valampuri John Kavitha, Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun, et al
Volume
7
Issue
11
Pages
e50269
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050269
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23209694
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508930
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23209694
Web of Science
000312601700051
Scopus
84870311462
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/population-differentiation-southern-indian-male-lineages-correlates-agricultural-expansions-predatin
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ganesh Prasad", "last_name"=>"ArunKumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55538032400"}, {"first_name"=>"David F.", "last_name"=>"Soria-Hernanz", "scopus_author_id"=>"8676103200"}, {"first_name"=>"Valampuri John", "last_name"=>"Kavitha", "scopus_author_id"=>"23982470400"}, {"first_name"=>"Varatharajan Santhakumari", "last_name"=>"Arun", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602849361"}, {"first_name"=>"Adhikarla", "last_name"=>"Syama", "scopus_author_id"=>"55507451600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kumaran Samy", "last_name"=>"Ashokan", "scopus_author_id"=>"24775415400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kavandanpatti Thangaraj", "last_name"=>"Gandhirajan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55507775400"}, {"first_name"=>"Koothapuli", "last_name"=>"Vijayakumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196994592"}, {"first_name"=>"Muthuswamy", "last_name"=>"Narayanan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198095324"}, {"first_name"=>"Mariakuttikan", "last_name"=>"Jayalakshmi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35885437300"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet S.", "last_name"=>"Ziegle", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603590396"}, {"first_name"=>"Ajay K.", "last_name"=>"Royyuru", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506369490"}, {"first_name"=>"Laxmi", "last_name"=>"Parida", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701798270"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Spencer", "last_name"=>"Wells", "scopus_author_id"=>"39863715400"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin", "last_name"=>"Renfrew", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003474970"}, {"first_name"=>"Theodore G.", "last_name"=>"Schurr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003287562"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris Tyler", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55507977600"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel E.", "last_name"=>"Platt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201719040"}, {"first_name"=>"Ramasamy", "last_name"=>"Pitchappan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701316953"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870311462", "sgr"=>"84870311462", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0050269", "pmid"=>"23209694", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"366164713"}, "id"=>"2b84529e-6d4a-364a-b167-dbd3eb968c1d", "abstract"=>"Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/population-differentiation-southern-indian-male-lineages-correlates-agricultural-expansions-predatin", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536516"], "description"=>"<p>The network depicts clear isolated evolution among HTF populations with a few shared haplotypes between Kurumba (HTK) and Irula (HTF) populations. Circles are colored based on the 7 Major Population Groups as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269#pone-0050269-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, and the area is proportional to the frequency of the sampled haplotypes. Branch lengths between circles are proportional to the number of mutations separating haplotypes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["median", "17", "microsatellite", "haplotypes", "haplogroup"], "article_id"=>206976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reduced_median_network_of_17_microsatellite_haplotypes_within_haplogroup_F_M89_/206976", "title"=>"Reduced median network of 17 microsatellite haplotypes within haplogroup F-M89.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:56:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536297"], "description"=>"<p>(A) PCA plot based on HG frequencies. The two dimensions display 36% of the total variance. The contribution of the first four HGs is superimposed as grey component loading vectors: the HTF populations clustered in the direction of the F-M89 vector, HTK in the H1-M52 vector, BRH in the R1a1-M17 vector, while the HG L1-M27 is less significant in discriminating populations. (B) MDS plot based on 17 microsatellite loci <i>R<sub>st</sub></i> distances. The two tribal groups (HTF and HTK) are clustered at the left side of the plot while BRH form a distant cluster at the opposite side. The colors and symbols are the same as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269#pone-0050269-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, while population abbreviations are as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269#pone-0050269-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "31", "non-tribal", "populations", "tamil"], "article_id"=>206761, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_representing_the_genetic_relationships_among_the_31_tribal_and_non_tribal_populations_of_Tamil_Nadu_/206761", "title"=>"Plots representing the genetic relationships among the 31 tribal and non-tribal populations of Tamil Nadu.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:52:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288529", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288611", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288658", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288698", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288748", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288771", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288793", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288820"], "description"=>"<div><p>Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "indian", "lineages", "correlates", "expansions", "predating", "caste", "system"], "article_id"=>116820, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Population_Differentiation_of_Southern_Indian_Male_Lineages_Correlates_with_Agricultural_Expansions_Predating_the_Caste_System__/116820", "title"=>"Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536672"], "description"=>"<p>Var (Variance), SE (Standard Error), SD (Standard Deviation).</p><p>Haplogroup age estimates are given in years; groups with less than 5 STRs (samples) were excluded from calculations. Non-tribal groups (castes) displayed the oldest age estimates for most of the Y chromosome haplogroups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variances", "estimates", "17", "microsatellite"], "article_id"=>207150, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Haplogroup_variances_and_age_estimates_based_on_17_microsatellite_loci_/207150", "title"=>"Haplogroup variances and age estimates based on 17 microsatellite loci.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:59:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536727"], "description"=>"a<p>- 2001 Census, Government of India, <a href=\"http://censusindia.gov.in/\" target=\"_blank\">http://censusindia.gov.in/</a>.</p>b<p>-1981 Indian Census.</p>c<p>-1931 Indian Census.</p>d<p>- Estimated census size.</p>e<p>-1901 Indian Census.</p>f<p>- All Brahmin-related castes in Tamil Nadu,</p>g<p>-No information available.</p>h<p>-Population code used in PCA & MDS plots,</p>i<p>-Sanskrit is the language of scriptures and ceremonies, but populations quickly adopted local cultures and languages.</p>j<p>-Lower, Middle & Higher social ranks are self-perceived/assigned classifications.</p>k<p>-Approximate coordinates.</p><p>NTN (North Tamil Nadu),TNV (Tirunelveli).</p><p>DR (Dravidian), IE (Indo-European).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["31", "non-tribal", "endogamous", "populations"], "article_id"=>207205, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_the_31_tribal_and_non_tribal_endogamous_populations_studied_/207205", "title"=>"Description of the 31 tribal and non-tribal endogamous populations studied.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 02:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536598"], "description"=>"<p>BATWING estimates suggest that all populations groups started to diverge 7.1 Kya (95% CI: 5.5–9.2 Kya), with limited admixture among them for the last 3.0 Kya (2.3–4.3 Kya), the youngest diverge time estimate. The modal tree shows two differentiated nodes with clear overlapping estimates of the splits: a first node including one of the tribal groups (HTC) together with all the non-tribal MPGs (castes) with a divergence time of 6.2 Kya (4.7–8.0 Kya), while the second node embraces the HTF and HTK tribal groups with an estimated divergence between then of 4.9 Kya (3.6–7.1 Kya).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["batwing", "coalescence", "divergence", "estimates", "populations", "groups", "17", "strs"], "article_id"=>207062, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modal_tree_obtained_by_BATWING_indicating_the_coalescence_time_divergence_estimates_in_years_among_Major_Populations_Groups_MPG_after_using_17_STRs_from_all_haplogroups_/207062", "title"=>"Modal tree obtained by BATWING indicating the coalescence time divergence estimates (in years) among Major Populations Groups (MPG) after using 17 STRs from all haplogroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:57:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536839"], "description"=>"a<p> <i>P</i><0.00001.</p>b<p> <i>P</i><0.001.</p>c<p> <i>P</i><0.01.</p>d<p> No Significant, <i>P</i><0.2.</p><p>TR (Tribes), HTF (Hill Tribe Foragers), BRH (Brahmins), HTK (Hill Tribe Kannada speakers), SC (Schedule Castes), DLF (Dry Land Farmers), AW (Artisan & Warriors).</p><p>HG, MID, LOW – High, Middle and Low caste-rank hierarchy as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269#pone-0050269-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p><p>Endogamous populations were grouped based on geography, tribe-caste dichotomy, caste-rank hierarchy, and socio-cultural features mainly reflecting subsistence (7 Major Population Groups, MPG). The maximal genetic variation among groups (<i>F<sub>CT</sub></i>) and the minimal variation among populations within groups (<i>F<sub>SC</sub></i>) was observed when populations were grouped based on the 7 MPG classification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["molecular", "variance"], "article_id"=>207315, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_molecular_variance_AMOVA_/207315", "title"=>"Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 02:01:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536194"], "description"=>"<p>The majority of tribal populations are located in the mountains of the Western Ghats. The color codes are: Red – Hill Tribe Foragers (HTF); Turquoise – Hill Tribe Cremating (HTC); Green – Hill Tribe Kannada (HTK); Grey – Schedule Castes (SC); Pink – Dry-Land Farmers (DLF); Deep Blue – Artisan and Warriors (AW) and Yellow – Brahmin related (BRH). Population abbreviations are as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269#pone-0050269-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nadu", "sampling", "12", "19", "non-tribal"], "article_id"=>206660, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>295, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tamil_Nadu_map_showing_the_sampling_location_of_the_12_tribal_squares_and_19_non_tribal_circles_populations_/206660", "title"=>"Tamil Nadu map showing the sampling location of the 12 tribal (squares) and 19 non-tribal (circles) populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 01:51:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536782"], "description"=>"<p>SD (Standard Deviation).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromosome", "haplogroup", "frequencies", "31", "populations", "tamil"], "article_id"=>207254, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["GaneshPrasad ArunKumar", "David F. Soria-Hernanz", "Valampuri John Kavitha", "Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun", "Adhikarla Syama", "Kumaran Samy Ashokan", "Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan", "Koothapuli Vijayakumar", "Muthuswamy Narayanan", "Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi", "Janet S. Ziegle", "Ajay K. Royyuru", "Laxmi Parida", "R. Spencer Wells", "Colin Renfrew", "Theodore G. Schurr", "Chris Tyler Smith", "Daniel E. Platt", "Ramasamy Pitchappan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Y_chromosome_haplogroup_frequencies_in_the_31_populations_from_Tamil_Nadu_/207254", "title"=>"Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies (%) in the 31 populations from Tamil Nadu.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-28 02:00:54"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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