Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial
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{"title"=>"Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Juliet", "last_name"=>"Ndibazza", "scopus_author_id"=>"8988935200"}, {"first_name"=>"Harriet", "last_name"=>"Mpairwe", "scopus_author_id"=>"8988934600"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily L.", "last_name"=>"Webb", "scopus_author_id"=>"36657853300"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrice A.", "last_name"=>"Mawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507308741"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret", "last_name"=>"Nampijja", "scopus_author_id"=>"8988934800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lawrence", "last_name"=>"Muhangi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8988934900"}, {"first_name"=>"Macklyn", "last_name"=>"Kihembo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36677531700"}, {"first_name"=>"Swaib A.", "last_name"=>"Lule", "scopus_author_id"=>"35798684000"}, {"first_name"=>"Diana", "last_name"=>"Rutebarika", "scopus_author_id"=>"26538220500"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara", "last_name"=>"Apule", "scopus_author_id"=>"35798065400"}, {"first_name"=>"Florence", "last_name"=>"Akello", "scopus_author_id"=>"55362588400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hellen", "last_name"=>"Akurut", "scopus_author_id"=>"35797900000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gloria", "last_name"=>"Oduru", "scopus_author_id"=>"49964465100"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Naniima", "scopus_author_id"=>"55520083200"}, {"first_name"=>"Dennison", "last_name"=>"Kizito", "scopus_author_id"=>"17342550300"}, {"first_name"=>"Moses", "last_name"=>"Kizza", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508184739"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Kizindo", "scopus_author_id"=>"24802020500"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Tweyongere", "scopus_author_id"=>"55519737700"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine J.", "last_name"=>"Alcock", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603723389"}, {"first_name"=>"Moses", "last_name"=>"Muwanga", "scopus_author_id"=>"8988935100"}, {"first_name"=>"Alison M.", "last_name"=>"Elliott", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201419696"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84870866033", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0050325", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"366250531", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0050325", "pmid"=>"23236367", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870866033"}, "id"=>"8cbba716-3776-3edd-b34d-c735e67783b4", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and modulate disease incidence in early childhood with both beneficial and detrimental effects.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Entebbe, Uganda [ISRCTN32849447]. In three independent randomisations, 2507 pregnant women were allocated to receive single-dose albendazole or placebo, and praziquantel or placebo; 2016 of their offspring were randomised to receive quarterly single-dose albendazole or placebo from age 15 months to 5 years. Primary outcomes were post-immunisation recall responses to BCG and tetanus antigens, and incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia; incidence of eczema was an important secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Of 2345 live births, 1622 (69%) children remained in follow-up at age 5 years. 68% of mothers at enrolment, and 11% of five-year-olds, had helminth infections. Maternal hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were effectively treated by albendazole and praziquantel, respectively; and childhood hookworm and Ascaris by quarterly albendazole. Incidence rates of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema were 34, 65, 10 and 5 per 100 py, respectively. Albendazole during pregnancy caused an increased rate of eczema in the children (HR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15-2.17), p = 0.005). Quarterly albendazole during childhood was associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria (HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.73-0.98), p = 0.03). There were no consistent effects of the interventions on any other outcome.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Routine use of albendazole in pregnancy may not always be beneficial, even in tropical developing countries. By contrast, regular albendazole treatment in preschool children may have an additional benefit for malaria control where helminths and malaria are co-endemic. Given the low helminth prevalence in our children, the effect of albendazole on malaria is likely to be direct.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN32849447.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-anthelminthic-treatment-pregnancy-childhood-immunisations-infections-eczema-childhood-randomi", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284269", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284350", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284422", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284501", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284576", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284638", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284852"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and modulate disease incidence in early childhood with both beneficial and detrimental effects.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Entebbe, Uganda [ISRCTN32849447]. In three independent randomisations, 2507 pregnant women were allocated to receive single-dose albendazole or placebo, and praziquantel or placebo; 2016 of their offspring were randomised to receive quarterly single-dose albendazole or placebo from age 15 months to 5 years. Primary outcomes were post-immunisation recall responses to BCG and tetanus antigens, and incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia; incidence of eczema was an important secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Of 2345 live births, 1622 (69%) children remained in follow-up at age 5 years. 68% of mothers at enrolment, and 11% of five-year-olds, had helminth infections. Maternal hookworm and <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> were effectively treated by albendazole and praziquantel, respectively; and childhood hookworm and <em>Ascaris</em> by quarterly albendazole. Incidence rates of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema were 34, 65, 10 and 5 per 100 py, respectively. Albendazole during pregnancy caused an increased rate of eczema in the children (HR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15–2.17), p = 0.005). Quarterly albendazole during childhood was associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria (HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.73–0.98), p = 0.03). There were no consistent effects of the interventions on any other outcome.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Routine use of albendazole in pregnancy may not always be beneficial, even in tropical developing countries. By contrast, regular albendazole treatment in preschool children may have an additional benefit for malaria control where helminths and malaria are co-endemic. Given the low helminth prevalence in our children, the effect of albendazole on malaria is likely to be direct.</p> <h3>Trial registration</h3><p>Current Controlled Trials <a href=\"http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447\">ISRCTN32849447</a></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthelminthic", "infections", "eczema", "randomised", "controlled", "trial"], "article_id"=>116032, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Cell Biology", "Medicine", "Developmental Biology", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impact_of_Anthelminthic_Treatment_in_Pregnancy_and_Childhood_on_Immunisations_Infections_and_Eczema_in_Childhood_A_Randomised_Controlled_Trial__/116032", "title"=>"Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 01:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529604"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of mothers with children randomised is lower than the number of children randomised due to 20 sets of twins.</p>b<p>mv: missing values.</p>c<p>Household socioeconomic status was scored based on building materials of the home, number of rooms and items owned, “1” representing lowest and “6” representing highest status.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "mothers", "children", "enrolled", "quarterly", "albendazole", "placebo", "15", "months"], "article_id"=>200064, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_mothers_whose_children_were_children_enrolled_in_the_trial_of_quarterly_albendazole_versus_placebo_from_age_15_months_to_five_years_/200064", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of mothers whose children were children enrolled in the trial of quarterly albendazole versus placebo from age 15 months to five years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:01:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529272"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for time to first (or only episode) of eczema (a) comparing children whose mothers received albendazole during pregnancy with those whose mothers received albendazole-placebo (b) comparing children whose mothers received praziquantel during pregnancy with those whose mothers received praziquantel-placebo. Numbers shown in the tables are number of events (in brackets) and number of children at risk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthelminthic", "eczema", "incidence"], "article_id"=>199739, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_anthelminthic_treatment_during_pregnancy_on_eczema_incidence_in_the_children_/199739", "title"=>"Effect of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy on eczema incidence in the children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 02:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529730"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of maternal anthelminthic treatment on childhood disease incidence by maternal helminth status (from birth to 5 years).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maternal", "anthelminthic", "incidence", "helminth"], "article_id"=>200201, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_maternal_anthelminthic_treatment_on_childhood_disease_incidence_by_maternal_helminth_status_from_birth_to_5_years_/200201", "title"=>"The effect of maternal anthelminthic treatment on childhood disease incidence by maternal helminth status (from birth to 5 years).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:03:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529918"], "description"=>"<p>Malaria parasitaemia results were missing for 39, 53, 52 and 38 children at ages 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively; haemoglobin results were missing for 17, 28, 658<sup>b</sup> and 13 children at ages 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively; weight-for-age z-scores were missing for 2, 0, 1 and 4 children at ages 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively; height-for-age z-scores were missing for 12, 2, 9 and 12 children at ages 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively; weight-for-height z-scores were missing for 16, 4, 11 and 184<sup>c</sup> children at ages 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively.</p>a<p>The effect of quarterly albendazole on asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia changed with time (interaction p = 0.02), therefore the overall effect of the intervention on this outcome is not presented.</p>b<p>Haemoglobin was not measured for four-year olds from 22<sup>nd</sup> January 2009 onwards due to budget constraints.</p>c<p>Weight-for-height z-scores could not be calculated using WHO Anthro software for children who were aged >5 years and 1 month.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quarterly", "albendazole", "asymptomatic", "malaria", "haemoglobin"], "article_id"=>200385, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_quarterly_albendazole_during_childhood_on_asymptomatic_malaria_parasitaemia_haemoglobin_and_growth_/200385", "title"=>"The effect of quarterly albendazole during childhood on asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia, haemoglobin and growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529125"], "description"=>"<p>Flow of participants through the childhood trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "public health and epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "pharmacology", "obstetrics", "pediatrics and child health", "dermatology", "Non-clinical medicine"], "article_id"=>199577, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_of_participants_through_the_childhood_trial_/199577", "title"=>"Flow of participants through the childhood trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 02:39:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529532"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of mothers with children randomised is lower than the number of children randomised due to 20 sets of twins;</p>b<p>mv: missing values;</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["children", "enrolled", "quarterly", "albendazole", "placebo", "15", "months"], "article_id"=>199996, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_children_enrolled_in_the_trial_of_quarterly_albendazole_versus_placebo_from_age_15_months_to_five_years_at_the_time_of_randomisation_/199996", "title"=>"Characteristics of children enrolled in the trial of quarterly albendazole versus placebo from age 15 months to five years, at the time of randomisation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 02:46:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529793"], "description"=>"<p>There was no evidence of interaction between maternal albendazole and praziquantel treatments, therefore the effects of each treatment were examined independently.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthelminthic", "incidence", "pneumonia", "eczema"], "article_id"=>200249, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_anthelminthic_treatment_during_pregnancy_on_incidence_of_malaria_diarrhoea_pneumonia_and_eczema_during_early_childhood_from_birth_to_5_years_/200249", "title"=>"The effect of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy on incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia and eczema during early childhood (from birth to 5 years).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:04:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529471"], "description"=>"1<p>For each annual visit, denominators are slightly lower than in Web <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325#pone-0050325-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> due to excluding children who were first randomised at that annual visit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalence", "helminth"], "article_id"=>199941, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_prevalence_of_helminth_infection_at_each_routine_annual_visit_by_childhood_treatment_group_/199941", "title"=>"The prevalence of helminth infection at each routine annual visit, by childhood treatment group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 02:45:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529859"], "description"=>"<p>cCFP: crude culture filtrate proteins of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>.</p>a<p>geometric mean of response concentration +1;</p>b<p>bias-corrected accelerated confidence intervals computed by bootstrapping.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quarterly", "albendazole", "mycobacterial", "tetanus", "anti-tetanus", "antibody"], "article_id"=>200324, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_quarterly_albendazole_during_childhood_on_the_recall_response_to_mycobacterial_and_tetanus_antigens_and_on_anti_tetanus_antibody_levels_at_age_5_years_/200324", "title"=>"The effect of quarterly albendazole during childhood on the recall response to mycobacterial and tetanus antigens, and on anti-tetanus antibody levels, at age 5 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:05:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529376"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for time to first (or only episode) of (a) malaria, (b) diarrhoea and (c) pneumonia during the intervention period, comparing children who received quarterly albendazole with those who received placebo. Numbers shown in the tables are number of events (in brackets) and number of children at risk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quarterly", "albendazole", "15", "months", "years", "infectious", "incidence"], "article_id"=>199841, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_quarterly_albendazole_from_age_15_months_to_5_years_on_infectious_disease_incidence_in_children_/199841", "title"=>"Effect of quarterly albendazole from age 15 months to 5 years on infectious disease incidence in children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 02:44:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529668"], "description"=>"*<p>Hazard Ratio adjusted for eczema prior to randomisation and maternal hookworm at enrolment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quarterly", "albendazole", "incidence", "eczema", "months"], "article_id"=>200127, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Juliet Ndibazza", "Harriet Mpairwe", "Emily L. Webb", "Patrice A. Mawa", "Margaret Nampijja", "Lawrence Muhangi", "Macklyn Kihembo", "Swaib A. Lule", "Diana Rutebarika", "Barbara Apule", "Florence Akello", "Hellen Akurut", "Gloria Oduru", "Peter Naniima", "Dennison Kizito", "Moses Kizza", "Robert Kizindo", "Robert Tweyongere", "Katherine J. Alcock", "Moses Muwanga", "Alison M. Elliott"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_quarterly_albendazole_during_childhood_on_incidence_of_malaria_diarrhoea_pneumonia_and_eczema_15_months_to_5_years_/200127", "title"=>"The effect of quarterly albendazole during childhood on incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema (15 months to 5 years).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-07 00:02:07"}

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